|30th January 1933||Hitler Chancellor of Germany||Adolf Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany|
|22nd March 1933||First concentration camp opened||The first concentration camp was opened at Dachau in Germany|
|1st April 1933||Jewish shops boycotted||Germans were told not to buy from Jewish shops or businesses|
|24th November 1933||'Undesirables' sent to camps||Homeless, alcoholic and unemployed people were sent to concentration camps|
|17th May 1934||Jewish persecution||An order was issued which prohibited Jewish people from having health insurance|
|15th September 1935||Nuremberg Laws||The Nuremberg Laws were introduced. These laws were designed to take away Jewish rights of citizenship and included orders that:
Jews are no longer allowed to be German citizens.
|13th March 1938||Austrian Jews persecuted||Following Anschluss which joined Germany and Austria, Jews in Austria were persecuted and victimised.|
|8th July 1938||Munich synagogue destroyed||The Jewish synagogue in Munich was destroyed|
|5th October 1938||Jewish passports stamped with 'J'||The passports of all Austrian and German Jews had to be stamped with a large red letter 'J'|
|9th November 1938||Kristallnacht|| A night of extreme violence.
Approximately 100 Jews were murdered,
|12th November 1938||Jews fined||Jews were made to pay one billion marks for the damage caused by Kristallnacht.|
|15th November 1938||Jewish children expelled from schools||An order was issued that stated that Jewish children should not be allowed to attend non-Jewish German schools|
|12th October 1939||Austrian and Czech Jews deported||Jews living in Austria and Czechoslovakia were sent to Poland|
|23rd November 1939||Yellow Star introduced||Jews in Poland were forced to sew a yellow star onto their clothes so that they could be easily identified.|
|Early 1940||European Jews persecuted||Jews in German occupied countries were persecuted by the Nazis and many were sent to concentration camps.|
|20th May 1940||Auschwitz||A new concentration camp, Auschwitz, opened|
|15th November 1940||Warsaw Ghetto||The Warsaw Ghetto was sealed off. There were around 400,000 Jewish people inside|
|July 1941||Einsatzgruppen||The Einsatzgruppen (killing squads) began rounding up and murdering Jews in Russia. 33,000 Jews are murdered in two days at Babi Yar near Kiev.|
|31st July 1941||'Final Solution'||Reinhard Heydrich chosen to implement ‘Final Solution’|
|8th December 1941||First 'Death Camp'||The first 'Death Camp' was opened at Chelmno.|
|January 1942||Mass-gassing||Mass-gassing of Jews began at Auschwitz-Birkenau|
|Summer 1942||European Jews gassed||Jews from all over occupied Europe were sent to 'Death Camps'|
|29th January 1943||Gypsies sent to camps||An order was issued for gypsies to be sent to concentration camps.|
|19th April - 16th May 1943||Warsaw Ghetto Uprising||
An order was issued to empty the Warsaw Ghetto and deport the inmates to Treblinka. Following the deportation of some Warsaw Jews, news leaked back to those remaining in the Ghetto of mass killings.
A group of about 750 mainly young people decided that they had nothing to lose by resisting deportation. Using weapons smuggled into the Ghetto they fired on German troops who tried to round up inmates for deportation.
They held out for nearly a month before they were taken by the Nazis and shot or sent to death camps.
|Late 1943||'Death Camps' closed||With the Russians advancing from the East, many 'Death Camps' were closed and evidence destroyed.|
|14th May - 8th July 1944||Hungarian Jews sent to Auschwitz||440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to Auschwitz|
|30th October 1944||Auschwitz||The gas chambers at Auschwitz were used for the last time|
|27th January 1945||'Death Marches'||Many remaining camps were closed and evidence of their existence destroyed. Those who had survived the camps so far were taken on forced 'Death Marches'.|
|30th April 1945||Hitler committed suicide||Faced with impending defeat, Hitler committed suicide|
|7th May 1945||German surrender||Germany surrendered and the war in Europe was over|
|20th November 1945||Nuremberg war trial began||Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial at Nuremberg|
The Neo-Assyrian Empire used earthen ramps, siege towers and battering rams in sieges; the Greeks and Alexander the Great created destructive new engines known as artillery to further their sieges, and the Romans used every technique to perfection. That is to say, the Romans were not inventors, but they were superb engineers and disciplined, tough soldiers who fought against great odds and won, repeatedly.... Read More
Demetrius I, King of Macedon, invented many siege engines including battering rams and siege towers. For the Siege of Rhodes, he created the Helepolis, the Taker of Cities, a huge armored siege tower containing many heavy catapults.
The island city of Rhodes maintained its neutrality among the warring nations of the time, although it remained friendly to Ptolemy I of Egypt, the enemy of Demetrius of... Read More
In the first part of this series, we noted the siege equipment of the Assyrians consisted of complex battering rams, earthen ramps and a dedicated corps of engineers and sappers. Alexander the Great and the Greeks would take the next steps in the evolution of siege warfare. The Greeks had invented the catapult circa 399 B.C. Alexander innovated by fastening catapults and ballistas on the decks of ships to breach... Read More
While sieges had taken place earlier than the Neo-Assyrian Empire, such as that between Egyptian Pharoah Thutmose III and Canaanite rebels led by Kadesh at the Megiddo fortress in the 15th century B.C., the Assyrians perfected the art of siege warfare during the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 911 to 609 B.C.
Through war and conquest, Assyria became the most powerful empire the world had yet seen. After the... Read More
For one thousand years, chariots rolled through the Middle East, terrifying armies, destroying infantry lines and changing the face of war. Sumerians used heavy battlewagons with solid wheels drawn by wild asses around 2600 B.C. Until the innovation of spoked wheels, the weight of the battlewagons hindered their utility in war. The domestication of the horse inspired further chariot innovation as horses... Read More