World War One Timeline
|28 June 1914||Assassination of Franz Ferdinand||The Balkan states of Bosnia and Herzegovina, had been annexed from Turkey and taken into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This was strongly resented by many Serbs and Croats and a nationalist group, The Black Hand, was formed.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, had decided to inspect Austro-Hungarian troops in Bosnia. The date chosen for the inspection was a national day in Bosnia. The Black Hand supplied a group of students with weapons for an assassination attempt to mark the occasion.
A Serbian nationalist student, Gavrilo Princip, assassinated the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, when their open car stopped at a corner on its way out of the town.
|28 July 1914||Austria declared war on Serbia||The Austrian government blamed the Serbian government for the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife and declared war on Serbia.
Although Russia was allied with Serbia, Germany did not believe that she would mobilise and offered to support Austria if necessary.
However, Russia did mobilise and, through their alliance with France, called on the French to mobilise.
|1 Aug 1914||Germany declared war on Russia||Germany declared war on Russia.|
|3 Aug 1914||Germany declared war on France||Germany declared war on France. German troops poured into Belgium as directed under the Schleiffen Plan, drawn up in 1905. The British foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, sent an ultimatum to Germany demanding their withdrawal from the neutral Belgium.|
|4 Aug 1914||British declaration of war||Germany did not withdraw from Belgium and Britain declared war on Germany.|
|Aug 1914||Battle of Tannenberg||The Russian army marched into Prussia. However, because of the differences in railway gauge between Russia and Prussia it was difficult for the Russians to get supplies through to their men. The Germans, on the other hand, used their railway system to surround the Russian Second army at Tannenberg before it's commander could realise what was happening. The ensuing battle was a heavy defeat for the Russians with thousands of men killed and 125,000 taken prisoner. Although the Germans won the battle, 13,000 men were killed.|
|13 Aug 1914||Japan declared war on Germany||Japan declared war on Germany through her alliance with Great Britain, signed in 1902|
|Sept 1914||Battle of Masurian Lakes||Having defeated the Russian Second army, the Germans turned their attention to the Russian First army at Masurian Lakes. Although the Germans were unable to defeat the army completely, over 100,000 Russians were taken prisoner.|
|29 Oct 1914||Turkey||Turkey entered the war on the side of the central powers and gave help to a German naval bombardment of Russia.|
|2 Nov 1914||Russia declared war on Turkey||Because of the help given by Turkey to the German attack of Russia, Russia declared war on Turkey.|
|5 Nov 1914||Britain and France declared war on Turkey||Britain and France, Russia's allies, declared war on Turkey, because of the help given to the German attack on Russia.|
|late 1914||Early stages of the war||The German advance through Belgium to France did not go as smoothly as the Germans had hoped. The Belgians put up a good fight destroying railway lines to slow the transport of German supplies.
Despite a French counter-attack that saw the deaths of many Frenchmen on the battlefields at Ardennes, the Germans continued to march into France. They were eventually halted by the allies at the river Marne.?
British troops had advanced from the northern coast of France to the Belgian town of Mons. Although they initially held off the Germans, they were soon forced to retreat.
The British lost a huge number of men at the first battle of Ypres.
By Christmas, all hopes that the war would be over had gone and the holiday saw men of both sides digging themselves into the trenches of the Western Front.
|Dec 1914||Zeppelins||The first Zeppelins appeared over the English coast.|
|7 May 1915||Lusitania sunk||There outraged protests from the United States at the German U-boat campaign, when the Lusitania, which had many American passengers aboard, was sank. The Germans moderated their U-boat campaign.|
|23 May 1915||Italy||Italy entered the war on the side of the Allies.|
|2 Apr 1915||Second Battle of Ypres||Poison gas was used for the first time during this battle. The gas, fired by the Germans claimed many British casualties.|
|Feb 1915||Zeppelin bombing||Zeppelin airships dropped bombs on Yarmouth.|
|Feb 1915||Dardenelles||The Russians appealed for help from Britain and France to beat off an attack by the Turkish. The British navy responded by attacking Turkish forts in the Dardenelles.|
|Apr - Aug 1915||Dardenelles/ Gallipoli||Despite the loss of several ships to mines, the British successfully landed a number of marines in the Gallipoli region of the Dardenelles. Unfortunately the success was not followed up and the mission was a failure.|
|after Feb 1915||Winston Churchill resigns||Winston Churchill, critical of the Dardenelles campaign, resigned his post as First Lord of the Admiralty. He rejoined the army as a battalion commander.|
|April 1915||Zeppelins||The use of airships by the Germans increased. Zeppelins began attacking London. They were also used for naval reconnaissance, to attack London and smaller balloons were used for reconnaissance along the Western Front. They were only stopped when the introduction of aeroplanes shot them down.|
|early 1916||Winston Churchill||Winston Churchill served in Belgium as lieutenant colonel of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.|
|April 1916||Romania enter the war||Romania joined the war on the side of the Allies. But within a few months was occupied by Germans and Austrians.|
|31 May 1916||Battle of Jutland||This was the only truly large-scale naval battle of the war. German forces, confined to port by a British naval blockade, came out in the hope of splitting the British fleet and destroying it ship by ship. However, the British admiral, Beatty, aware that the German tactics were the same as those used by Nelson at Trafalgar, sent a smaller force to lure the German's into the range of Admiral Jellicoe's main fleet. Although Beatty's idea worked, the exchange of fire was brief and the German's withdrew.|
|1 June 1916||Battle of Jutland||The British and German naval forces met again but the battle was inconclusive. The German ships did a great deal of damage to British ships before once again withdrawing and the British Admiral Jellicoe decided not to give chase.?
Although British losses were heavier than the German, the battle had alarmed both the Kaiser and the German Admiral Scheer and they decided to keep their fleet consigned to harbour for the remainder of the war.
|28 Nov 1916||First Aeroplane raid||The first German air raid on London took place. The Germans hoped that by making raids on London and the South East, the British Air Force would be forced into protecting the home front rather than attacking the German air force.|
|Dec 1916||Lloyd George Prime Minister||Lloyd George became Prime Minister of the war time coalition. His war cabinet, unlike that of his predecessor, met every day. However, there was considerable disagreement among the members of the Cabinet, especially between Lloyd George and his war secretary, Sir Douglas Haig. Lloyd George suspected Haig of squandering life needlessly and was suspicious of his demands for more men and freedom of action in the field.|
|21 Feb - Nov 1916||Battle of Verdun||The Germans mounted an attack on the French at Verdun designed to 'bleed the French dry'. Although the fighting continued for nine months, the battle was inconclusive. Casualties were enormous on both sides with the Germans losing 430,000 men and the French 540,000.|
|1 July - Nov 1916||Battle of the Somme||The battle was preceded by a week long artillery bombardment of the German line which was supposed to destroy the barbed wire defences placed along the German line but only actually succeeded in making no mans land a mess of mud and craters. The five month long battle saw the deaths of 420,000 British soldiers (60,000 on the first day), 200,000 French soldiers and 500,000 German soldiers all for a total land gain of just 25 miles.|
|1917||New war commander||Lloyd George, who had never trusted his war minister's ability to direct the war, persuaded the Cabinet to appoint the French General Nivelle as supreme war commander over Haig's head. Haig was assured that the appointment was for one operation only and that if he felt the British army was being misused by the Frenchman he could appeal to the British government.|
|July - Nov 1917||W.front Passchendale||The operation commanded by the French General, Nivelle, went wrong and caused the loss of many French soldiers. Haig protested to the British government and advocated trying his own scheme for a breakthrough. At the resulting battle of Passchendale, Haig broke his promise to call off the battle if the first stage failed because he did not want to lose face with the government.|
|1917||Churchill Minister of Munitions||Following the heavy defeat at Passchendale, Lloyd George decided that he wanted Churchill in the Cabinet. Churchill was duly appointed Minister of Munitions.|
|1917||Reinforcements sent to Italy||The Italians had lost many men trying to hold the line between Italy and the Central Powers. British and French reinforcements were sent to hold the line.|
|early 1917||German U-boat campaign||In Germany, orders were given to step up the U-boat campaign. All allied or neutral ships were to be sunk on sight and in one month almost a million tons of shipping was sunk. Neutral countries became reluctant to ship goods to Britain and Lloyd George ordered all ships carrying provisions to Britain to be given a convoy.|
|6 April 1917||USA declares war on Germany||The United States of America declared war on Germany in response to the sinking, by German U boats, of US ships.?|
|Nov 1917||W. Front Cambrai||The British took a large force of tanks across the barbed wire and machine gun posts at Cambrai.|
|Dec 1917||Treaty of Brest-Litovsk||Following the successful revolution by the Bolsheviks, the Russians signed an Armistice with Germany at Brest-Litovsk. The terms of the treaty were harsh: Russia had to surrender Poland, the Ukraine and other regions. They had to stop all Socialist propaganda directed at Germany and pay 300 million roubles for the repatriation of Russian prisoners.|
|April 1918||RAF formed||The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service were merged to form the Royal Air Force.|
|8 - 11 Aug 1918||Battle of Amiens||The British general, Haig, ordered the attack of the German sector at Amiens. At the same time the news came through that the allies had broken through from Salonika and forced Bulgaria to sue for peace.|
|mid Oct 1918||Allies recover France and Belgium||The allies had taken almost all of German-occupied France and part of Belgium.|
|30 Oct 1918||Armistice with Turkey||The allies had successfully pushed the Turkish army back and the Turks were forced to ask for an armistice. The terms of the armistice treaty allowed the allies access to the Dardenelles.|
|early Nov 1918||Hindenberg line collapsed||By the beginning of November the allies had pushed the Germans back beyond the Hindenberg line.|
|9 Nov 1918||Kaiser abdicated||Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated.|
|11 Nov 1918||Armistice signed||At 11 am, in the French town of Redonthes, the Armistice was signed bringing the war to an end.|
The Neo-Assyrian Empire used earthen ramps, siege towers and battering rams in sieges; the Greeks and Alexander the Great created destructive new engines known as artillery to further their sieges, and the Romans used every technique to perfection. That is to say, the Romans were not inventors, but they were superb engineers and disciplined, tough soldiers who fought against great odds and won, repeatedly.... Read More
Demetrius I, King of Macedon, invented many siege engines including battering rams and siege towers. For the Siege of Rhodes, he created the Helepolis, the Taker of Cities, a huge armored siege tower containing many heavy catapults.
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In the first part of this series, we noted the siege equipment of the Assyrians consisted of complex battering rams, earthen ramps and a dedicated corps of engineers and sappers. Alexander the Great and the Greeks would take the next steps in the evolution of siege warfare. The Greeks had invented the catapult circa 399 B.C. Alexander innovated by fastening catapults and ballistas on the decks of ships to breach... Read More
While sieges had taken place earlier than the Neo-Assyrian Empire, such as that between Egyptian Pharoah Thutmose III and Canaanite rebels led by Kadesh at the Megiddo fortress in the 15th century B.C., the Assyrians perfected the art of siege warfare during the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 911 to 609 B.C.
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For one thousand years, chariots rolled through the Middle East, terrifying armies, destroying infantry lines and changing the face of war. Sumerians used heavy battlewagons with solid wheels drawn by wild asses around 2600 B.C. Until the innovation of spoked wheels, the weight of the battlewagons hindered their utility in war. The domestication of the horse inspired further chariot innovation as horses... Read More