Famous for being Queen of United Kingdom and Ireland, longest reigning monarch 64 years
Born - 24th May 1819 - Kensington Palace, London
Parents - Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Princess Victoria
Siblings - None
Married - Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg
Children - Victoria, Edward VII, Alice, Alfred, Helena, Louise, Arthur, Leopold, Beatrice
Died - 22nd January 1901, Osborne House Isle of Wight, UK aged 81 years
Alexandrina Victoria was born on 24th May 1819 the only child of the Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1830 William IV became King. William and Victoria, the only surviving grandchild of George III, became heir to the throne.
Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on 20th June 1837. She was crowned on 18th May 1838 and took up residence in Buckingham Palace, London.
In 1840 Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha. Although he was never popular with the British people Victoria adored him and relied on him for political advice. Albert had no political role so became active in the arts, science and technology. He arranged the Great Exhibition of 1851 - where the world's leading industrial and cultural developments were shown.
Victoria and Albert had nine children:
Victoria born 1840 - married the emperor of Germany Friedrich III
Albert Edward born 1841 - became Edward VII married Alexandra of Denmark
Alice born 1843 - married Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
Alfred born 1844 - Duke of Edinburgh married Marie of Russia
Helena born 1846 - married Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Louise born 1848 - married John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
Arthur born 1850 - Duke of Connaught married Louise Margaret of Prussia
Leopold born 1853 - Duke of Albany married Helen of Waldeck-Pyrmont
Beatrice born 1857 - married Henry of Battenberg
On 14th December 1861 Albert died of Typhus and Victoria sank into a deep depression. From the time of Albert's death to her own death she remained in mourning and only wore black. She withdrew from public life and here popularity declined. She refused all attempts to come out of seclusion until the late 1870s. Her popularity was somewhat restored when she was crowned Empress of India in 1877.
The reign of Queen Victoria saw many changes in British society brought about by the Reform Laws, the expansion of the electorate and the great strides made in industry and technology. She survived seven assassination attempts and was the first monarch to use a locomotive train.
Victoria celebrated here golden jubilee in 1887 and her diamond jubilee in 1897. She died on January 22nd 1901 having reigned for 64 years.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire used earthen ramps, siege towers and battering rams in sieges; the Greeks and Alexander the Great created destructive new engines known as artillery to further their sieges, and the Romans used every technique to perfection. That is to say, the Romans were not inventors, but they were superb engineers and disciplined, tough soldiers who fought against great odds and won, repeatedly.... Read More
Demetrius I, King of Macedon, invented many siege engines including battering rams and siege towers. For the Siege of Rhodes, he created the Helepolis, the Taker of Cities, a huge armored siege tower containing many heavy catapults.
The island city of Rhodes maintained its neutrality among the warring nations of the time, although it remained friendly to Ptolemy I of Egypt, the enemy of Demetrius of... Read More
In the first part of this series, we noted the siege equipment of the Assyrians consisted of complex battering rams, earthen ramps and a dedicated corps of engineers and sappers. Alexander the Great and the Greeks would take the next steps in the evolution of siege warfare. The Greeks had invented the catapult circa 399 B.C. Alexander innovated by fastening catapults and ballistas on the decks of ships to breach... Read More
While sieges had taken place earlier than the Neo-Assyrian Empire, such as that between Egyptian Pharoah Thutmose III and Canaanite rebels led by Kadesh at the Megiddo fortress in the 15th century B.C., the Assyrians perfected the art of siege warfare during the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 911 to 609 B.C.
Through war and conquest, Assyria became the most powerful empire the world had yet seen. After the... Read More
For one thousand years, chariots rolled through the Middle East, terrifying armies, destroying infantry lines and changing the face of war. Sumerians used heavy battlewagons with solid wheels drawn by wild asses around 2600 B.C. Until the innovation of spoked wheels, the weight of the battlewagons hindered their utility in war. The domestication of the horse inspired further chariot innovation as horses... Read More