The Tudors - Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots
Elizabeth I (1533-1603) became Queen of England in 1558 after her sister Mary died.
She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn and had had a troubled childhood. Her mother had been executed when she was three years old and her father had married four more times. The only constant person in her life was her nanny, Kat Ashley.
Her father had separated the church from Rome and Elizabeth was a Protestant.
When Elizabeth's sister Mary, a Catholic, came to the throne in 1553 she made England Catholic again and Elizabeth was put into the Tower of London so that she could not lead a Protestant rebellion against Mary and take her place on the throne.
When Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558 she made England Protestant. Consequently she had many Catholic enemies who wanted to see her replaced by Mary Queen of Scots. In 1558 Mary Queen of Scots, granddaughter of Henry VIII's elder sister Margaret, had challenged Elizabeth for the throne of England, but had failed. The Catholics believed that because Elizabeth had been declared illegitimate in 1536, Mary's challenge to the throne was stronger than Elizabeth's.
Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1587) was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. She became Queen of Scotland when she was six days old after her father died at the Battle of Solway Moss.
A marriage was arranged between Mary and Edward, only son of Henry VIII but was broken when the Scots decided they preferred an alliance with France. Mary spent a happy childhood in France and in 1558 married Francis, heir to the French throne. They became king and queen of France in 1559.
Sadly, Francis died in 1560 and Mary, not wanting to stay in France, returned to Scotland. During Mary's absence, Scotland had become a Protestant country. The Protestants did not want Mary, a Catholic and their official queen, to have any influence.
In 1565 Mary married her cousin and heir to the English throne, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. The marriage was not a happy one. Darnley was jealous of Mary's close friendship with her secretary, David Rizzio and in March 1566 had him murdered in front of Mary who was six months pregnant with the future James I. Darnley made many enemies among the Scottish nobles and in 1567 his house was blown up. Darnley's body was found inside, he had been strangled.
Three months later Mary married the chief suspect, the Earl of Bothwell. The people of Scotland were outraged and turned against her. She was removed from the throne and fled to England. She appealed to Elizabeth for help and support, but Elizabeth, suspicious that she was going to raise Catholic support and take the throne of England, kept Mary a virtual prisoner for the next eighteen years.
In 1586 letters sent to Mary by a Catholic called Thomas Babington, were found. The letters revealed a plot to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Mary. Elizabeth had no choice but to sign Mary's death warrant. Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle on February 8th 1587.
How World War II Began
World War II was one of the most destructive conflicts in all of human history. More than forty-six million civilians and soldiers died, many in cruel and horrifying circumstances that lasted for years. The majority of them were unknown faces, lost in time and history, and only recognized by the people who loved them. Their lives, culture, and livelihood were swept away from one day to... Read More
The old American West was a wild place. It was an era full of cowboys, gunslingers, outlaws, and wars. The European settlers driving the expansion into the west faced many hardships. They had to force their way into the Pacific by driving the Native Americans away from their lands. Ultimately, this chaotic environment created a culture susceptible to violence and the breakdown of law and order.
After the... Read More
The Medieval Ages was a time full of interesting history, rich art, revolutionizing philosophy, epic heroes, and even a bit of magic. However, it was not a very pleasant period to be a medical patient. The common way to relieve pain amongst sick people was to inflict more pain upon them, and then hope to the starts for a bit of luck. Peasants and monks with little to no experience, aside from castrating animals... Read More
Ancient Egypt was a fascinating place. Its mysterious civilizations, powerful gods, and stunning pyramids have captured our imagination for thousands of years. Thanks to the abundance of evidence left behind by ancient Egyptians, we have been able to discover a wealth of information about their daily lives. We can read their words, see their houses, taste their dishes, step into their tombs, and even touch their... Read More