Senator Ernest Gruening (D-AK) on Vietnam

When President Kennedy came in he took the advice of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara to escalate our participation, and to send so-called "advisors" over there. Well that was a piece of hyprocrisy--they weren't advisors at'll--they were combat troops. And that hypocrisy has continued until very recently, when we've thrown the mask off. Now, in sending armed troops there we violated a treaty agreement, and I can read you the particular clause which provides that, but in addition to that we were in violation of the United Nations charter.