The Mesopotamians

Articles on the culture, history, and peoples of ancient Mesopotamia


Mesopotamian Merchants and Traders

Mesopotamian Merchants and Traders

Because of irrigation, southern Mesopotamia was rich in agricultural products, including a variety of fruits and vegetables, nuts, dairy, fish and meat from animals both wild and domestic. Other than food items, Mesopotamia was rich in mud, clay and reeds out of which...
Mesopotamian Education and Schools

Mesopotamian Education and Schools

The first schools were started by the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia. The invention of writing in the mid-4th millennium B.C. made kings and priests realize the need for educating scribes. At first, the writing was simple pictograms, but it gradually developed into...
Daily Life of Mesopotamian Commoners

Daily Life of Mesopotamian Commoners

Most Mesopotamian commoners were farmers living outside the city walls. However, cities too required commoners as many tasks were involved in running a city efficiently. All of Mesopotamia’s social classes lived in the city, including the nobility, the royals and...
Mesopotamian Artisans and Craft Workers

Mesopotamian Artisans and Craft Workers

Artisans in Mesopotamia represented the middle class of society. They were free citizens with a few rights and privileges who created the goods desired by the upper classes. Fine pottery, gold and silver jewelry, carved ivory figurines, finely woven textiles and...
The Mesopotamian Upper Classes

The Mesopotamian Upper Classes

The upper classes of ancient Mesopotamia included kings and their families, priests and priestesses, ranking military officers, scribes and wealthier merchants and traders. The hereditary noble class were the kings, land-owning families and priests and priestesses and...
Daily Life in a Mesopotamian City

Daily Life in a Mesopotamian City

Daily life in an ancient Mesopotamian city depended on a person’s status and occupation. Almost all societies and cultures are hierarchical with rulers at the top and laborers at the bottom. By the time people began living in cities, circa 4000 B.C., societies had...
Daily Life in the Mesopotamian Countryside

Daily Life in the Mesopotamian Countryside

Like many agriculturally-based people, most ancient Mesopotamians were farmers, perhaps 80 percent of them. Their lives differed from those of the city-dwellers. While crops grew abundantly in the fertile soil near the rivers, crops grown farther away required...

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What Did Ancient Mesopotamians Eat?

What Did Ancient Mesopotamians Eat?

While reading this article, keep in mind that ancient Mesopotamia’s history stretches back to mankind’s first ventures into agriculture and village life, during the time when people realized a different life from that spent hunting and gathering. Sometime around 9000...
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