When Salvador Dali set out to paint a depiction of the infamous Roman Emperor Caligula in 1971, he chose to depict the thing nearest and dearest to the emperor’s heart: his favorite racehorse, Incitatus. The painting “Le Cheval de Caligula” shows the pampered pony in all his royal glory. It is wearing a bejeweled crown and clothed in purple blankets and a collar of precious stones. While the gaudy clothing of the horse is historically correct, the Spanish surrealist artist managed perhaps for the only time to understate the strangeness of his subject matter.


Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born in 12 A.D. and reigned from 37-41. He was the first emperor with no memory of the pre-Augustan era, that is, before emperors were deified—and had no compunction about being worshipped as a god. As the object of a cultus, the boy emperor believed in his own semi-divine status and saw no reason not to follow whatever strange desire entered his mind, such as treating his horse better than royalty. The Roman historian Suetonius writes that he gave the horse eighteen servants, a marble stable, an ivory manger, and rich red robes. He demanded that it be fed oats mixed with the flex of gold and wine delivered in fine goblets. Dignitaries bowed and tolerated Incitatus as a guest of honor at banquets. Caligula repeatedly mocked the system of imperial decorum in Roman upper-crust society in incidents such as these. His actions led to his violent death at the hands of political rivals.

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Scott Rank 0:12
History isn’t just a bunch of names and dates and facts. It’s the collection of all the stories throughout human history that explained how and why we got here. Welcome to the history unplugged Podcast, where we look at the forgotten, neglected, strange, and even counterfactual stories that made our world what it is. I’m your host, Scott rank.

Hey, everyone, welcome to Part One in our series on history’s most insane rulers. We’re going to kick things off by starting with one of the most notorious people and he’s just about synonymous with an insane ruler. And if you know very little about Roman history, you might recognize this name. That is Roman Emperor, Gaius Caligula. We’re not going to start out with His life, we’re going to start out with an artistic representation of him. Well, not even a representation of him per se, but his horse. Salvador Dali wanted to depict the Roman Emperor in 1971 with painting and in order to do so, he chose it to pick the thing nearest and dearest to the Emperor’s heart. His favorite racehorse into Tatas is painting they shave all day Caligula shows the pony and all his royal glory. It’s wearing a jewel crown and clothes and purple blankets and a color precious stones. The gaudy clothing of the horse is historically correct, at least according to some accounts. But the Spanish surrealist artists managed perhaps for the only time to understate the strangeness of his subject matter. Caligula whose proper name was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanic is was born in 12 ads in the rain from 37 to 41. He was the first emperor of Rome with no memory of the pre-Augustinian era that is before Emperor’s were deified, and he had no compunction about being worshipped as a God as the object of Colts in the Roman sense. The boy Emperor believed in his own semi-divine status and saw no reason not to follow whatever strange desire entered his mind, such as treating his horse better than royalty. The Roman historians who toniest writes that he gave inserted us 18 servants, a marble stable, and every major and rich red rope. He demanded that his horse be fed oats mixed with flecks of gold and wine delivered by goblets. dignitaries were forced to bow to the horse and tolerated him as a guest of honor banquets. clickers repeated mockery of Roman Imperial decorum led to his violent death at the hands of political rivals. The Emperor wasn’t called Caligula in his lifetime, but instead, the formal title is the name, Caligula. This means little soldiers boots, a demeaning name that came from his infancy when his mother Agra Pina dressed him in miniature soldiers outfits, was used after his death. He was only Emperor for four years, but in that time, he built a religious cult around himself and his sister. He satisfied every sexual desire imaginable and many unimaginable, all while he emptied out the Imperial Treasury. Mostly he did this to antagonize Roman senators and patricians. There are some more recent studies that have taken a sympathetic view of his reign. And this is just that Caligula repeatedly insults to the Roman aristocracy in order to marginalize them and return the Empire to a pre a Gustin status quo where the Emperor’s weren’t quite so prominent. But is this thesis goes he failed and his enemies wrote the histories of this period, leading to him being displayed in the absolute worst possible light. Now, many other biographers take a much less sympathetic view of his reign. Anthony Barrett writes if Caligula was insane. He wasn’t the eccentric type like a Ludwig of the Varia, which we’ll look at later in the series and long story short, he was eccentric, but he uses the money to build castles and beautify Bavaria. That’s harm, people. But Caligula wasn’t this type of Mad ruler. Instead, he was more like iron-fisted Stalin esque figure, a Joseph Stalin type, who is capable of rational decision making and statesmen like x when it suited him, but he was cold and neutral on the murderous impact that his choices had on others. Caligula whatever your take on him, he was a profligate spender, and sees more money than any previous Emperor. Only a few months into his reign, he managed to waste the entire fortune left behind by Tiberius, a summit had taken the former Emperor 22 years to collect and tribute. Caligula spent the funds on three-month-long inaugural celebrations, accompanied by some accounts over 160,000 members animal sacrifices for Caligula to elevate himself to an object of worship. This wasn’t unprecedented in the ancient world. This practice has a long history in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamian empires and through Marissa and Assyria and other places, but no earlier Roman Emperor had ever claimed divinity for themselves. Julius Caesar and Augustus were deified after their deaths, but Caligula fully embraced Emperor worship and encourage others to worship him as a God in his lifetime. Earlier Emperor is tolerated in this practice

but clearly greeted it with open arms and promoted it in the Roman provinces. You tried to commission a huge statue of himself inside the temple of Jerusalem, the center of Jewish worship. This action would have nearly guaranteed a revolt from the Jews, who would have considered the construction of pagan slap to the face of their religion. Period Agrippa the center of the man who, according to the traditional biblical account, slaughter dozens of infants in a failed attempt to kill Jesus even consider this a terrible idea and convince the Emperor not to do it. Click a little began to liken himself to demigods just Hercules and Baucus. But then he went further and entered the sacred space, the Supreme deities of the Roman world, taking a seat with mercury and Apollo and Mars. Roman historian fellow writes that in doing so, Caligula convinced himself of his divinity by the rationale that, as the leader of men, he was as much above them as a human Shepherd was above his animal flock, and, quote, it was fitting that I, who am the leader of the most excellent of all herds, namely, the race of mankind, should be considered as a being of superior nature, and not merely human, but as one who has received a greater and more holy portion. So believing in his own deity, Caligula brutalized Roman citizens of high rank by sending them to prison based on flimsy pretenses like insulting his vanity, he burned alive an author who made a double entendre about the Emperor disfigured men with brandy irons have condemned them to work in the mines or build roads. Others he sentenced to death by having them sought. The terrible reputation of Caligula made chroniclers and Roman historians depict him as a monstrous creature that was part man part goat, a creature of completely uncontrolled loss of energy. Roman historian su Tonia describes him as very tall and extremely pale, with an unstable body with a thin neck and legs. His eyes were hollow his forehead broad and grim See, describes him his head crown with male pattern baldness, even though his body was hairy. Because of this to look upon him from a higher place as he passed by or for any other reason, whatever to mention a goat was treated as a capital offense. So Tony’s rights, so he depicts him as someone whose outer ugliness was a reflection of his inner barbarity and clearly even tried to make them worse. While his face was naturally for bending and ugly, he purposely made it even more savage Practicing all kinds of terrible and fearsome expressions before Amir. Okay, so who is Caligula? Why was he like this? And are these accounts accurate? Let’s go back to the beginning of his life. Guys Caligula was the third child born to Germanic is the Roman general and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, and the grandson of Emperor Augustus, on his mother’s side, clearly grew up around rough soldiers and stern officers. He was separated from his parents as an infant for 18 months, and then join them on the Rhine frontier as a small child when Germanic has was forced to deal with unrest among troops.

Germanic has responded to a mutiny by mass executing the ringleaders and public young colliculus all the spectacles remained in the Rhine Warzone for an additional two years until he was four. Germanic has died three years later, under mysterious circumstances, which put Caligula in his family and his mother Agra Pina at the mercy of his adoptive grandfather Tiberius We’re now one coup away from losing their protection and having an enemy political faction tried to kill them. Shortly after dramatic because of his death, Caligula went to live with his great grandmother and Tiberias, his mother Livia. When she died two years later, he went to live with his grandmother Antonio, close absence from the court of Tigers was a blessing, as his family was mostly exiled and killed. His brother Nero, not the Emperor, but another Nero died in exile, and his other brother truces Caesar was in prison on treason charges. When Emperor Tiberius took ill and secluded himself on the island of Capri and 31 ads, your Amanda Caligula to help him on the islands. Meanwhile, his mother and brother juices had died in prison. So Tony has claims that clearly showed no remorse at the death of his family remain opportunistically obedient Iberia’s, noting that no one had ever been a better slave or a worse master. Tiberius granted him an honorary public office. In 33 ad, one observer said that even in his illness, tigers could tell that Caligula, whom he had appointed a joint successor in 35 ads, along with his grandson Tiberius gemelas wasn’t suitable trained. The Emperor later referred to him as an unleashed Viper on Rome. When Tiberius died in 37, Caligula and gamma lis received his estate and titles in order to serve as joint heirs of the Roman Empire. Well, in these situations, as you can expect, factions quickly formed the Praetorian prefect macro, who led the Imperial Guard sided with Caligula Yeah, Tiberius is will nullify to remove gamma lists on the ironically the grounds of insanity. Caligula assumes sole powers of the principal, a term for the early Roman Empire, and he entered Rome triumphantly. Crowds received their new Emperor with open arms based on affection for his father Germanic has bailo of Alexandria described him as the first emperor. Beloved by all the world from the rising to the setting aside, they were hopeful for a ruler who had to demonstrate more warmth and charity than had Tiberius demonstrated, who was a gifted military commander but

a poor politician and a paranoid loner, who use charges of treason to exile or execute anyone he suspected of disloyalty. The beginning of clueless reign went well. He tried to right the wrongs of trade barriers and entries and trials. He closed the open trees in cases and paid off all the former Emperor’s debts. Everyone that Tiberius had exiled he restored to their position and compensated those that he thought had been wrongfully taxed. Caligula, in order to shore up political support, gave the Praetorian Guard a significant bonus along with the city troops in the army outside Italy. He also honored his slim family by retrieving their bodies and giving them a proper Roman burial in the tomb of Augustus. But not long into his reign, he fell into a coma. When he awoke, observers thought He was a different man. Roman biographer’s mark is awakening as a turning point in his reign. His narcissism grew in his empathy shrank. Whatever concern Caligula had for the welfare of his empire was swallowed by his vanity. He began to treat the state Treasury like his own personal expense account. One biographer of the Empire, one biographer, the Emperor estimates that when Tiberius passed away, the Treasury held approximately 2.7 billion sestero essays or five or six years of revenue. These funds were depleted before the end of his first year of reign, much of its spent on his inaugural celebrations. Caligula quickly ratcheted up honorary titles for himself, accumulating more than a Habsburg count that rolled kingdoms territories and duchies. He began with pious, then Castro dome filius, or child of the camp. Then Potter XR TCM, author of the Army’s an optimist Maximus Caesar. greatest and best of Caesars these excessive titles soon weren’t enough. Caligula as Roman biographers to toniest notes overheard several kings who had come to Rome to pay their respects to him. At dinner, they disputed the nobility of their descent. Caligula cried out, let there be one Lord one king. He began from that time to claim kingship and divine majesty. Caligula ordered Greek statues of the gods famous for their sanctity, artistic merit, including Jupiter of Olympia, moved to Rome and their heads removed and his putting their place. To religious Romans. This would be the equivalent of a modern-day Catholic seen a new pope declare that the icons of the saints should have their heads removed and replaced with his own. To Tony’s rights at Caligula extended a part of the palace as far as the forum and turn the temple of Castor and Pollux, a sacred site built to commemorate military victory in 44 bc into a vegetable often took his place between statues of the demigod sons of Zeus and had himself worshipped. To make matters worse, he set up a temple solely used for his own worship, attended by priests. In the temple. It was a life-size statue of him and gold. One of the strangest displays of Caligula’s sense of grantor came from his attempts to mimic Xerxes’ pontoon bridges. reconstructing Heraclitus describes this bridge in his histories as a row of ships that allowed the Persian ruler to cross the Hellespont, the strait separating Anatolia from Greece, and he did so in 480 bc during the second Persian invasion of Greece. Caligula, as recounted in the histories of Cydonia’s and fellow historian Dido, wanted to project the image of a conquering hero to subjects and he tried to do the same. By and the mole puts Yoli distance three miles bridge by bringing together merchant ships and anchoring them in a double line, amount of Earth heat on them and fashion in the style of

the app. Way, major Roman road, clicking the road over this bridge back and forth for two successive days. On the first day, he wrote originally decorated horse, himself adorned with a crown made of oak leaves, along with a buckler, a sword, and a cloak made of golden cloth. On the second day, he wore the dress of a charioteer in a car drawn by a pair of horses, carrying before him a hostage boy from Rome’s Eastern enemy of the Parthian Empire. On the bridge, were rooms and even whole houses with drinking water in them. While Caligula rode across the ships in his gorgeous arrangement, he gave a banquet to his men, and in the end hurled many guests off the bridge into the sea, many of them drowned. The entire Praetorian Guard was called to attend the spectacle, along with a company of his friends and gala chariots clearly believed himself to have outdone Xerxes since the Hellespont was a much narrower gap than the gap between Bay and the mole at Pozzuoli. Caligula may have also done this To inspire fear in the northern European provinces of Germania and Britannia, ancient analogs to Germany and Britain, which he had designs to conquer. Whether by demonstrating his construction abilities or showing off his so-called military prowess, classicist MP Charlesworth doubts the accounts of the bridge of Bay from diodes Etonians. He considers the ladder prone to basing his stories on the wildest gossip about Caligula, including such stories about habitual incest with all his three sisters, or wallowing in gold, or plans for universal poisoning. simple physics would also review the boat bridge story. bridging the three-mile distance between pootie Jolie and Bay would be impossible due to the number of ships needed. Deploying so many ships would bankrupt the Empire does at least acknowledges the absurdity of this project. He writes it so many boats were requisitioned that it disturbed the Mediterranean importing of grain from Egypt to Italy, triggering a famine different writers also place a story at separate times and Caligula is ranked Josephus in Seneca places story a few months before Cleveland’s assassination. Dido and Sue toniest place it two years into his four-year reign. Well, it is plausible that Caligula was mad enough to try to outdo Xerxes with the boat bridge. The Fantastic details of the facts of the story make it implausible. So whatever the historic city of Columbus bridge a bay, so Tony is rattled off other examples of Cleveland innate madness brutality. gladiatorial shows were notably violent under his rule, or the spectacle wild beasts were fed cattle, but the Emperor thought they were too expensive, so criminals were devoured. Instead, he reviewed the line of prisoners without examining any charges and took his place in the middle of a colonnade, commanding them to be led away from the bald head to a bald head. As a newly coordinated Emperor Caligula saw glory and battle and the status of war leader. But rather than achieve real victory you went through emotions of a military campaign and borrow the symbols of victory without earning them. Click a little launch only one campaign Emperor and it originated from what appears to be a sudden and irrational impulse. Having gone to visit the springs at a river in Monterey, Umbria, Italy. Do you remember the need to recruit Batavia bodyguards, the Germanic foreign-born soldiers who traditionally protected the Emperor’s Caligula then had the idea of an expedition to Germania? The Emperor assemble legions and auxiliaries, exactly levies, and raised vast amounts of money to fund the campaign. while collecting provisions on a scale that made Julius Caesar’s Gaul campaign appear modest. He began the march emitted so hurriedly that the Praetorian cohorts had to suffer the shame of laying their standards on pack animals, an insult to their dignity as elite soldiers. But Caligula the chronicler reminds us was so lazy that he rode around in a litter carried by eight bears ordering townspeople to sweep the roads before him and sprinkle water To settle the dust, the officers and soldiers how Caligula in barely concealed contempt for forcing

them on such a fast March. Well, he traveled the knees, but he was oblivious to their hatred. On reaching his camp. To show his vigilance as a commander, he dismissed the generals who arrived late from far-flung provinces. While renewing troop strength, he canceled pensions of many of the chief Centurions. Some who are only a few days away from retirement, or reduce through rewards given on completion of full military service. The 6000 says Tara says, or about four years’ worth of salary. The upshot of this unnecessary force march was the surrender of the exile Britain chief at minus, who had been banished by his father, Cuno byline, and had deserted to the Romans with a small force. Caligula, with typical theatrics, treated the surrender of this band of exiles as if the entire British Island had surrendered to Him. He wrote a letter to Rome demanding careers Right at full speed to the forum in the Senate. Despite the so-called surrender, Caligula found nobody to fight with on the European continent or a battle that will allow him to achieve and boast a victory. If a real conquest was impossible than a fake one would have to do you order the Germans have his Batavia bodyguards taken across a river and concealed there, they sent word that an enemy force was nearby. On the news, he rushed out with a part of the Praetorian cavalry to the woods to do battle with imaginary foes. After cutting a few tree branches and adorning them in a manner like trophies, you returned by torchlight, mocking those who hadn’t followed in their cowardice. He presented his companions and the partners in his victory with crowns ornamented with figures of the sun, moon, and stars. Finally, as if you were drawing this war to a close, Caligula drew up a line of battle on the shore of the English Channel, and arrange his ballistas and other artillery. When no one could imagine his next action. He suddenly ordered them to collect shells and put them in their homes and folds of their gowns. The shells were spoils from the ocean due to the capital and polity. He then promised the soldiers 100 denarii each as gratuity, as if he’d been exceedingly generous up to this point. Go your way happy go your way, rich Caligula said after the campaign clicky lip reportedly crafted a victory parade that took far more effort than the original military action. He wrote to his financial agents to prepare for the Triumph at the smallest possible costs. But for the victory celebration at the grandest possible scale, the Romans showcase a cast of defeated enemies. Caligula as if you were a casting agent, selected the tallest of his troops and reserve them for his parade. The Emperor compelled them to dye their hair red and let it grow along, learn the Germanic language, and take barbarian names to appear as if they were conquered battalions. The ersatz triumph and for celebrations was another occasion for Caligula to show disrespect for the Senate. his dealings with some As we’re breaking protocol from the reign of this occlusive Tiberius, during which the Senate had done most of the decision making on its own, Caligula did what he could to shame, embarrass and humiliate senators, individually and collectively. To do so he treated this horse in cantatas with more respect than them. In addition to his fine garments, He also served as a royal host. When invitations were sent from the palace, they were in the horse’s name, and then cantatas could dine at the Emperor’s table. Roman historians claimed Caligula tried to make Inca Tatas either a senator or a priest before the Emperor’s death. Modern classes have to have argued that Caligula wasn’t intentionally malicious but a victim of his own cult of personality. Early 20th-century British historian JP Vidi Ballston blames a manipulative Senate for stoking legalize arrogance, leading to a belief in his divinity so that he can be better controlled. Caligula accepted honors without reservation And removed or executed advisors who could have helped him in dealing with tributes and flatterers wealthy citizens fed his cult of personality to secure well-compensated priesthood positions and his new Colt. The most toe-curling Axel Cleveland’s madness concern is incestuous relations with the sisters to Tony is claims Klieg. He lived in habitual Colonel relations with all of them that had a special affection for Julia Drusilla, whom he may have violated when he was still a minor. When she became the wife of the console, Lucius caches, longus Caligula took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful wife, even making her heir to his property on the throne. When she died in 30 ads, Caligula appointed a season of public mourning, declaring a capital crime to express merriment or feast with one’s parents, wife, and children. consumed with grief that result is death. Caligula fled Rome, went to Syracuse, and returned to the disheveled state without cutting his hair or shaving his beard. shameful and disheveled look for an emperor. for that moment en su Tonia states that clicky led

never took an oath on important matters, even in public assemblies before soldiers and citizens, except by the Godhead of Drusilla. Historians to try to make sense of Cleveland’s madness since the Roman Empire. firsthand, biographical accounts come from six Roman sources to writers, a fellow of Alexandria and Seneca the younger knew him personally to other writers, Tacitus and Josephus was born too late to know him, but they had access to Roman politicians and courtiers who didn’t know Caligula. The final writers were the historians who Tony is author of lives of the Caesars, and Dido, author of Roman history, who penned their works generations after the death of Caligula, 80 and 190 years respectively. The further removed in time the writers were from the Emperor, the more outlandish the stories become. What scribes me have let their imaginations get The best of them. Or maybe they weren’t under the threat from partisan hatchet men like Seneca and followers who lived during the life of Caligula and were able to write more critically. The earlier generations of writers offered balanced the story of clickless rain, and the later accounts turned into a sort of monster from Brothers Grimm tale. These historians thought that clueless madness resulted from two faults. First extreme assurance. Second, excessive fearfulness. They described him as hating and fearing the gods to such a degree, that he shut his eyes and covered his ears at the slightest thunder and lightning. terrified at the wrath of Zeus. The storm increased he left his bed and hid under it. In a similar incident on a journey through Sicily, he marked so-called miracles attributed to the gods. And yet he became panic-stricken one night when the Sicilian stratovolcano erupted spewing smoke worldwide threats equally terrified Caligula when you wrote to the chariot on the forest To the Red River. It was said that there could be mass panic as the enemy appeared anywhere near what speed he would mount a horse and escape to the bridges. When the lengthy line of Camp servants and baggage prevented his crossing, soldiers move the Emperor hand over hand over the crowd. Upon learning of a rebellion and Germania, be prepared to flee Rome and ready to ships for this purpose. new methods of psychological analysis developed in the last century, have allowed historians to diagnose Caligula with every mental illness for which professionals have a name has been called schizophrenia, psychopathic, epileptic, bipolar, or more simply a garden variety megalomaniac something that is madness came on suddenly with an illness and 37 ads, while others think it had to do with childhood trauma and parental abandonment. Still, others say that his madness was never as bad as our historical record claims. His crazy actions either never happened and are only a fictional account created by chroniclers who had something to gain by demonizing Caligula. making their own political faction appear better by comparison, or something else. German scholar Ah well, Rick wrote in 1903 that the Emperor wasn’t simply mad brother, there was a system or method to his alleged madness, and that he suffered a breakdown from the stress of his duties as Emperor. A recent biography on curricula by Eloise winterly argues that he may have been manic because his behavior matches symptoms of the illness. Others say he was a product of the Roman imperial system, whose worship of the Emperor and indulgent lifestyle could turn anyone insane with delusions of grandeur. Still, others don’t reach for a complex explanation and write them off as a sociopath with no care about the effect of his monstrous actions on others, but without the ability to perform a psychiatric assessment on coagula. Reaching such conclusions is ultimately impossible. accounts that are written decades after someone’s death, especially by political enemies are suspicious and lack objectivity. An examination of clickless turbulent childhood might be more relevant in explaining his adult behavior, or through feral. The modern-day biographer of the Emperor argues that the path to megalomania began early in his life, and the exposure to the execution of mutinous soldiers when he was only a toddler triggered a lifelong fear of a mutiny of his own, making him paranoid of conspiracy, and all too happy to execute anyone perceived as disloyal. Roman accounts of clueless abnormal behavior, so just an anxiety disorder is often described as petulant and excitable, even in normal circumstances. is conditioned condition was therefore likely triggered by the stress of His Imperial office.

One description states that he was especially tormented with sleeplessness for he never rested more than three hours at night. And even for that length of time, he didn’t sleep quietly but was terrified by strange apparitions. Once for example, dreaming that the spirit of the ocean talks with them Therefore wary of lying in bed wide awake during the greater part of the night, he would not sit upon his couch and wander through the lawn colonnades crying out from time to time for daylight and longing for its coming. Infant separation anxiety could have caused calendula to deliberately remove himself from figures who represented father figures. This disorder explains his lack of close relationships in general, and from senior advisors such as the Praetorian prefect macro, and his father in law Marcus Junius Salinas. When Germanic has died, Caligula may have rejected anyone who filled the void of a father figure in order to protect himself against another abandonment. Separation Anxiety could further be explained why Caligula kept competent advisors and respectable politicians at a distance. I’ll fill in his court with flatterers and disreputable figures. Several analysts believe his behavior is better explained by a thyroid disorder. Robert S. Katz, medical expert, and classicist argued that although clearly was far from normal, he was Too consistent in his behavior to be described as mentally ill, and was more likely affected by a biological condition. The Emperor may have instead suffered from a glandular disturbance, hyperthyroidism, which accelerates the body’s metabolism and causes nervousness, anxiety, and irritability. But clickless narcissism, promotion of Emperor worship, and violent temper are hard to explain by a simple glandular disorder. One of the most common diagnoses of the Emperor is sociopathy. clickless, callous disregard for the suffering of others. Apart from a select few close to him, he suggests he was mostly incapable of empathy. He constantly made impulsive decisions without the worry about the harm they caused others, whether it was Roman peasants, soldiers, aristocrats, or senators. He had no remorse about hurting a stranger. The explanation is reasonable, but there are reasons to doubt this diagnosis. The Emperor did care about others’ opinions of them. Even if he had a warped sense of public taste and what would appeal to the masses, he did love to Showboat in front of politicians and the public. As such, he was a Gauss figure who defied custom and his dress and personal appearance. He didn’t follow other upper cross Romans in his clothes, shoes or rest of his attire, not even quote, of a man or even an ordinary mortal as one biographer writes, Caligula often appeared in public in embroidered cloaks covered with precious stones, the long SLEEVE TUNIC and bracelets, even sometimes in SALKIN in a woman’s robe and a female’s low shoes. Other times Clicquot was claimed to look like a poorly dressed theatre performer attempting to portray a God. He presented himself with a golden beard, holding in his hand thunderbolts to try dance, a Confucius, or even in the garb of Venus. He frequently wore the ceremonial dress of a train of general and sometimes the breastplate of Alexander the Great, one of the holiest relics and Roman martial culture, which he had taken from the mesa Dhoni and sarcophagus Another clay Gila biographer Jay Lucas believes that clay Gila suffered from psychopaths a more severe form of sociopathy, in which one cannot form deep bonds with others, whether they’re friends or family. Well, a sociopath can form deep bonds of family or close friends. a psychopath doesn’t show love, empathy, or remorse for anyone. Other national leaders thought to be psychopaths, such as Fidel Castro or Muammar Gaddafi. Much click his love of endless speechifying all of whom thought nothing of subjecting their countrymen to four or five hour-long speeches, he was ready to give a speech at a moment’s notice, particularly if he had an occasion to make a charge or accusation against someone. Well, This video explains clearly his propensity for imprisoning and torturing Roman officials. It doesn’t explain the few cases when the Emperor did show a strong emotional attachment, particularly to a sister Drusilla. He doted on her excessively in her life and elevated her to the level of God After her death and 30 ads, where according to some of the admittedly more outlandish accounts he decreed worship of her in Italy in the provinces. Vin Massaro and Ian McHenry examine the Literary Sources of Klieg’s life,

extracting a list of mental illness symptoms according to modern psychological analysis. According to their opinion, Caligula suffered from anxiety brought on by stress associated with traumatic events in his life, and by early separation from his immediate family. These stresses then lead to chronic phobias. Whatever the source of his mental illness even the most unflattering account admits it Caligula wasn’t always evil. To Tony’s progress finally admits that he did complete public works that remain unfinished by his predecessor, Tiberias. He completed the temple of Augustus and the theater of Pompei. He also commissioned an aqueduct in the region near the Tiber, which was finished by a successor Claudius and an amphitheater beside the safe to a building where the assembly of the people would gather to cast votes. to repair the city walls at Syracuse, which had fallen into ruin, and the temples of the gods there, Caligula intended to rebuild the Palace of Polly Kratos of Santos, sixth century BC tyrant revered in Rome. Also to finish the Temple of Apollo, it did Emma, the fourth largest sanctuary in the Greek world, to establish a city high in the Alps, and to dig a canal to the Isthmus of Greece. They would have increased Aegean commerce by connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the ironic Gulf, building something like a Panama Canal, the Greek peninsula. He sent a chief Centurion to survey the work, but nothing came of it. Eventually, the project was completed in 1893. One of the most charitable views on clicking his actions was that if you were mad, there was a method to his madness. Clicking that performs acts so bizarre they were downright theatrical, but done with a political purpose in mind. Always. winterly argues in his 2011 biography of Caligula that he specifically wanted to humiliate the center editorial aristocracy. Emperor Gustus created an ambiguous system of communicating with the nobility to breach the gap between the facade of trying to restore the Roman Republic and the reality of the Roman Empire. Because of Augustus, his superior position of power, Senators automatically abate him in a thoroughly opportunistic manner. But the withdrawn Tiberius couldn’t sustain a Gustus his model of indirect communication. So the aristocracy ended his reign with trees and trials led to his removal from the row. Click his troubled upbringing and abuse by Roman politicians meant he would never conform to their system. He only held good relations at the beginning of his reign and 37. conspiracies led by senatorial aristocrats against Caligula to overthrow him began in 39. According to do the Emperor accused senators of hypocrisy, deception and lies were heaping honors on the late Emperor Tiberius and is confident so Janus he then Rios Trees and trials that had begun undersea Janus, which were aimed at senators and wealthy property owners of Rome to remove those who could oppose this power and extend the Imperial Treasury. curricula not only stripped off the mask from the face of the aristocracy winterly notes, but he also gave a name to what lay behind it. There resentment of imperial rule, their hatred of the Emperor, and their readiness to attack him whenever a favorable opportunity presented itself. By rebuking the Senate for the way it communicated with Emperor Caligula had rendered it incapable of communication. So click ILA began a process of humiliating the senatorial aristocracy. He felt their financial ruin by requiring enormous sums for his own travel and entertainment, visiting them. Along with sponsoring public games and spectacles. He lived in a noxious splendor to flaunt his social status. Click this plan to bankrupt the senatorial aristocracy even offers a sort of logic to a strange relationship with his favorite racehorse. In patatas, and equipping him with a palace and staff of servants, along with his plan to name him to a console ship, and office for which all senators wanted. Caligula ratchets up his displays of wealth and power every time he received opposition, whether in response to criticism or conspiracy to depose or assassinate him. After crushing the third conspiracy against him, Caligula allowed slaves to bring legal charges against their masters in another ploy to financially cripple the aristocracy. He further humiliated them by abolishing reserved seating for senators and elite soldiers at the theater and insulted their forefathers by removing the statues of great men of the Republic from the camp Martinus where Augustus had collected them. The purpose of all this winterly argues, was to destroy the aristocratic hierarchy and expose it to ridicule. Caligula sin then was not playing Augustus game, by which the ladder pretended The Emperor’s were not autocrats, and to which the senate responded by bestowing lavish prey on him. kliklak causes an ambiguous communication system to collapse, which had up to them but a crucial means of avoiding the paradox of the simultaneous existence of a monarchy and Republic. In a sense, Bell was wrong and no one could silence it.

In the four years of his reign, the aristocracy hated him so much the Roman senate considered abolishing the Empire and returning to a republic, due to the stain on the Office of Augustus is consistent and unrelenting disrespect eventually led to his murder. The attack was likely conducted by two tribunes of the Praetorian Guard, with help from Centurions. They circa fear into the very torian prefix and Kleagle is advisor Gaius Julius ballistas to discourage them from warning the Emperor or to do anything to stop them. In 41 ad in a secluded Hall in the basement of the palace, they stabbed Caligula 30 times, Praetorian Guard, whom Caligula had humiliated on multiple occasions in cash. Kara but the attack caster chera hit him with a violent blow first, but it wasn’t fatal. His failure was likely intentional it Some say it was his plan not to kill Caligula with one strike, but with many wounds. He may have done so as a vengeful end to an emperor who had killed so many watching colliculi lingering death with joy gratify the guard’s moral sense. In the end, Cleveland met the same prolong death perversely enjoyed inflicting on others, but time his cards found him. The conspirators were long gone, and he eventually succumbed to his injuries that right that when clearly lay dead. The bystanders were called how he had once said to people would you have but one neck and they showed him now that it was he who had one neck while they had many hands problem still about and trying to define colliculus madness. Many of the sources which are count as deeds are so biased and the nature of his mania so unpredictable that the precise nature of his mental illness may never be determined from a clinical perspective Noticing an emperor who died 2000 years ago is nearly impossible. Establishing a disorder based on bias accounts written by authors who are neither contemporaries of the subject nor the era is unreliable. Any court of law would reject such a psychiatric evaluation with extreme prejudice. A psychological diagnosis would need to depend on a statistical analysis of contemporary data to achieve generalizations. One conclusion that history professor Barbara Sidwell comes to is that clickless suffered from a personality disorder that caused dysfunction, and the most likely trigger was his troubled upbringing and relationship with his family. He was an autocrat, who let the power go to his head, not a delusional madman operating out of delusion. Whatever the nature of his madness or lack thereof, Caligula appears in the Chronicles as the ancient equivalent. What came to my mind was the 1961 episode of The Twilight Zone, it’s a good life. If you haven’t seen it in this episode, six-year-old Anthony free Mine holds godlike powers and he uses this power to terrorize his hometown, his family, and most of all his parents, everyone is forced to obey Him, and everyone must think of constant happy thoughts. If not, Anthony destroys them or transforms them into hideous creatures. Everyone fears him endlessly praising his actions as being good. Since anyone who disagrees is banished. Anthony has never been disciplined and doesn’t even understand that his actions are monstrous. from one perspective, perhaps the only difference between Anthony and Caligula at least the way the Emperor is described in Roman Chronicles is that the Emperor receives a form of justice from his assassins in yet. All right, well, that’s all for

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"History’s Most Insane Rulers, Part 1: Emperor Caligula–Bankrupting Rome By Appointing Your Horse Senator" History on the Net
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