J. Edgar Hoover’s 50-Year Career of Blackmail, Entrapment, and Taking Down Communist Spies

Great Society

Busing Desegregation

Busing and School Desegregation in the 1970s

Busing as a means of acheiving desegregation in schools was a policy that was popular in theory, but in practice was overwhelmingly opposed by the vast majority of white parents, and supported by only a slim majority of black parents. (And black parents often changed their minds after their experiences…

Busing to Desegregate Schools

Busing to Desegregate Schools

Kansas City, Missouri, never enacted forced busing. It found another way to spend over $1 billion on desegregation—and had the same results as everyone else. Following the Brown decision, Kansas City had put forth a race-blind plan in which students attended the school closest to them. Since the races tended…

Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 facts was one of the most momentous and far-reaching pieces of legislation in American history. The act prohibited segregation in public facilities and private establishments catering to the public, particularly restaurants and hotels. It also prohibited discrimination in private employment on the basis of…

Affirmative Action History

Affirmative Action: A Short History

Affirmative action describes policies that support members of a disadvantaged group that has previously suffered discrimination (and may continue to) in such areas as education, employment, or housing. Affirmative Action History Some observers feared that the legislation might give rise to preferential policies, like affirmative action. Proponents of the legislation…