(See Main Article: The Tudors – Overview of the Royal Dynasty)
The Tudors are one of the most remarkable dynasties in English history. Henry VII, of Welsh origin, successfully ended the Wars of Roses and founded the House of Tudor. He, his son Henry VIII, and his three children Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I ruled for 118 eventful years.
Scroll down to see more articles about the history of the Tudors.
(See Main Article: The Tudors – Society)
Tudors society was steeped in the medieval tradition in England, yet it also embraced the changing social norms of early modern Europe. During the Tudor period people were grouped in a hierarchical system with the King at the top. The nearer to the top of the system you were, the richer you were. If you were born poor there was little chance of you becoming rich. In the time of the Tudor dynasty, people were taught by the church that their position in life was determined by God. However, it was through the church that some men who were born poor managed to become very rich and powerful indeed.
This diagram shows the structure of Tudor society.
During the Tudor period the church was very powerful, owning large amounts of land. The people were very religious and attended church services. The church was able to control people’s lives by preaching what they wanted them to believe. During the reign of Henry VIII the church became less powerful as Henry made himself head of the church, dissolved the monasteries and confiscated their land.
Archbishops were very powerful. They owned large amounts of land and were very rich. They were able to influence the King or Queen and played a part in the government of the country. After the Reformation, Archbishops only remained powerful if they supported the monarch.
During the Tudor period, the Bishops of the most important churches were rich and powerful, playing a part in the government of the country. After the Reformation they only remained in position if they supported their monarch.
Clergymen were poorly paid but were highly respected members of the community that they served. As well as delivering church services they were responsible for the education of those members of the community that could afford to pay, for visiting the sick and counseling the bereaved.
The King or Queen
The Tudor monarch was at the head of the social system. He or she was the richest person in the land, owning vast amounts of land and many palaces. Both rich and poor alike were bound to serve their monarch, failure to do so often resulted in death. The monarch made all the laws of the land and although there was a court system, few judges would dare to pass judgement against the King’s wishes. Until Henry VIII broke away from Rome (the Reformation) and formed the Church of England, Monarchs were subject to obey the Pope. The Tudor monarchs, with the exception of Henry VII, and Mary I who returned the Church to Rome, were head of the Church, the Judiciary and the Government.
Gentlemen were born rich and came from families with titles – Barons, Earls and Dukes. Most owned large country estates and were often given important positions in government. The Monarch would visit his most notable subjects when he or she went on a progress and they would be expected to provide board and lodging for the King and his court. Sometimes this could be as many as 300 persons. If summoned to court a gentleman, or other member of his family, would have to leave their home and travel to London to be with the King.
Yeomen and Citizens
Both yeomen and citizens were fairly wealthy men. They were not born members of the gentry, but were rich enough to own their own houses and employ servants. Yeomen either owned their own land or rented land from gentlemen which they farmed. They were successful farmers and were rich enough to be able to afford labourers to do the heavy farming jobs for them. Citizens lived in the towns. They were rich merchants and craftsmen. Merchants made their living by trading goods with ship owners. Craftsmen were skilled men who could command a good price for the goods that they made.
During the Tudor period, labourers worked for Yeomen or citizens and were paid a wage for their work. Labourers were employed to do the heavy back-breaking jobs on the farms or in the craft shops. In 1515 an act was passed which fixed a labourers wage at 3d per day for winter months and 4d per day for summer months with bonuses to be paid at harvest time. A labourer could expect to work from sunrise to sunset in the winter and from sunrise to early evening in the summer. Sundays and major saint’s days were free. Skilled workers were to be paid 5d per day during the winter and 6d for summer days.
The Tudors monarchs reigned from 1485 until 1603. There were five crowned Tudor monarchs; Lady Jane Grey reigned as Queen for only nine days. The Tudor kings and queens were very powerful and they are noted for the numbers of people executed during the period.
(See Main Article: The Tudors – Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots)
“The Most Powerful Women in the Middle Ages, Part 3: Elizabeth of Tudor and Ottoman Queen Mother Kösem Sultan”
For the full “History Unplugged” podcast, click here!
Elizabeth I (1533-1603) became Queen of England in 1558 after her sister Mary died.
She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn and had had a troubled childhood. Her mother had been executed when she was three years old and her father had married four more times. The only constant person in her life was her nanny, Kat Ashley.
Her father had separated the church from Rome and Elizabeth was a Protestant.
When Elizabeth’s sister Mary, a Catholic, came to the throne in 1553 she made England Catholic again and Elizabeth was put into the Tower of London so that she could not lead a Protestant rebellion against Mary and take her place on the throne.
When Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558 she made England Protestant. Consequently she had many Catholic enemies who wanted to see her replaced by Mary Queen of Scots. In 1558 Mary Queen of Scots, granddaughter of Henry VIII’s elder sister Margaret, had challenged Elizabeth for the throne of England, but had failed. The Catholics believed that because Elizabeth had been declared illegitimate in 1536, Mary’s challenge to the throne was stronger than Elizabeth’s.
Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1587) was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. She became Queen of Scotland when she was six days old after her father died at the Battle of Solway Moss.
A marriage was arranged between Mary and Edward, only son of Henry VIII but was broken when the Scots decided they preferred an alliance with France. Mary spent a happy childhood in France and in 1558 married Francis, heir to the French throne. They became king and queen of France in 1559.
Sadly, Francis died in 1560 and Mary, not wanting to stay in France, returned to Scotland. During Mary’s absence, Scotland had become a Protestant country. The Protestants did not want Mary, a Catholic and their official queen, to have any influence.
In 1565 Mary married her cousin and heir to the English throne, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. The marriage was not a happy one. Darnley was jealous of Mary’s close friendship with her secretary, David Rizzio and in March 1566 had him murdered in front of Mary who was six months pregnant with the future James I. Darnley made many enemies among the Scottish nobles and in 1567 his house was blown up. Darnley’s body was found inside, he had been strangled.
Three months later Mary married the chief suspect, the Earl of Bothwell. The people of Scotland were outraged and turned against her. She was removed from the throne and fled to England. She appealed to Elizabeth for help and support, but Elizabeth, suspicious that she was going to raise Catholic support and take the throne of England, kept Mary a virtual prisoner for the next eighteen years.
In 1586 letters sent to Mary by a Catholic called Thomas Babington, were found. The letters revealed a plot to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Mary. Elizabeth had no choice but to sign Mary’s death warrant. Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle on February 8th 1587.
(See Main Article: The Tudors – Discoverers and Explorers)
In the Tudor period, Europeans began to explore the world more than ever before. Some of those who left their homeland and journeyed across the seas were looking for new lands and peoples to trade with, some were looking for better and quicker routes to China and India.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who, financed by the king and queen of Spain, set sail to find a new route to India.
“Christopher Columbus Wasn’t as Good—Or as Terrible—As You Think”
For the full “History Unplugged” podcast, click here!
He left Europe early in September 1492 and when land was sighted one month later he believed he had found India and named the native people living there, Indians.
Columbus had not reached India as he thought but had reached Central America. He claimed the land for Spain and from 1492 onwards Europeans began to settle in America. They called it the New World.
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was a Portuguese explorer and the first sailor to sail all around the world.
“Travelers and Explorers, Part 5: Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) and His Terrifying Voyage Across an Endless Ocean”
For the full “History Unplugged” podcast, click here!
He did not discover America because he sailed around the bottom of South America.
Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was a British explorer and navy captain. He was financed by Queen Elizabeth to discover lands and riches for England. Drake was the second man to sail all around the world and was knighted by the queen for his services to the country.
In 1588 he was one of the Captains that sailed to meet and defeat the Spanish Armada. It is a well known legend that he insisted on finishing a game of bowls before going to his ship.
Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was an adventurer and explorer who became one of queen Elizabeth’s favorites after putting down a rebellion in Ireland. Elizabeth gave him land and the position of captain of the Queen’s Guard.
Raleigh led an expedition to the New World and claimed North Carolina and Virginia for England. Virginia was named after Elizabeth who was known as the Virgin Queen because she never married.
In the New World Raleigh discovered potatoes and tobacco and brought them back to England.
While Raleigh had been in the New World Elizabeth had found herself a new favorite, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.
In 1592 Elizabeth found out that Raleigh had married one of her maids. She was very angry and put him into the Tower of London. When he was released three years later he left England for the New World in search of gold.
Walter Raleigh had always had enemies and after Elizabeth’s death they convinced James I that he did not support the king, a crime punishable by execution. Raleigh was not executed but was sent to the Tower of London where he spent his time writing. It is thought that his unfinished book ‘History of the World’ was written at this time.
In 1616 he was released from the Tower and once again set off to search for gold. However, while on his expedition he destroyed a Spanish town in the New World. The king of Spain was furious and demanded that Raleigh be punished. James decided to use the execution notice served on Raleigh in 1603. Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded at Whitehall in 1618.
(See Main Article: The Tudors – The Spanish Armada)
During the Tudor period, it was shortly after Elizabeth’s accession to the throne of England, in 1559, a peace treaty was signed between England, France and Spain bringing peace to Europe.
Without the burden of having to pay for a war, England became prosperous and in 1568 Elizabeth used money to increase the size of the navy. The new ships that were built were faster and easier to steer than before.
At the end of the year the English navy seized a treasure ship bound for the Netherlands, which was controlled by Spain. Philip II of Spain was very cross and relations between England and Spain worsened.
Philip was also annoyed that Elizabeth had restored Protestantism in England. His anger with England increased further after Elizabeth knighted Francis Drake. The countries of Europe had an agreement that there would be free trade between them, Drake, however, preferred to trade privately and Philip saw Elizabeth’s knighthood of him as an insult to the free trade agreement and began to prepare for war.
After the Protestant leader of the Netherlands, William of Orange, was assassinated, Elizabeth provided Drake with a navy of 25 ships and told him to harass Spanish ships. The English sailor did as he was asked and took Spanish possessions from Colombia and Florida. Philip retaliated by seizing all English ships in Spanish ports.
Elizabeth allied England with the Protestant Dutch states who wanted freedom from Spain and sent an English army to assist them.
Philip made plans for a fleet of 130 Spanish ships to block the Channel and allow the Duke of Parma to invade England.
When Elizabeth ordered the execution of Catholic Mary Queen of Scots in 1587, Philip increased the numbers of ships bound for England and planned an invasion force. Once again his plans were upset by Drake who managed to enter Spanish waters and burn large numbers of the ships bound for England.
The Armada set sail from Lisbon on May 28th 1588 but encountered storms and was forced to put in to the port of Corunna to make repairs. It was July 1588 before Philip’s Armada was ready to set sail again.
29th July 1588
The Armada under the control of Medina Sidonia, reached the western approaches to the English Channel. Warning beacons were lit all along the South Coast and the English navy was put to sea.
The English defending fleet, commanded by Lord Howard of Effingham, included ships captained by Drake, Frobisher and Hawkins. Effingham sailed in the ‘Ark Royal’, which had been built for Raleigh in 1581, while Drake captained ‘The Revenge’. However, instead of concentrating all his resources in the straits of Dunkirk as Philip had thought he would, Effingham stationed a large contingent at Plymouth to shield the south-west coast from a direct landing.
The story is told that Drake was playing a game of bowls when the Armada was sighted, but insisted on completing the game before setting sail.
Many of the Armada’s Captains favoured a direct assault on England, but Medina Sidonia’s orders strictly forbade this. The fleet therefore sailed on from the Lizard to Calais to meet the Duke of Parma. However, on reaching Calais, the Duke of Parma was not to be seen. The Armada dropped anchor to await his arrival.
Route taken by the Spanish Armada.
8th August 1588
At midnight, Howard sent eight fire ships into the congested Spanish ranks. Many Spanish Captains cut their cables in their haste to escape the flames. They blundered away from the blaze straight into the gunfire of the waiting English. Unfortunately for the Spanish, their firepower was vastly inferior to that of the English.
A change of wind blew the Armada North out of the range of English fire. However, the wind became a gale, and the Spanish were driven further North and many were dashed on the Northern rocks. The survivors were forced to make their way around the Orkneys and down the Irish coast. The remains of the proud Armada limped home to Spain.
(See Main Article: The Tudors – Elizabethan Poor Law 1601)
Before the Reformation it had always been considered Christian duty to carry out the instructions laid down in Matthew chapter 25 – that all Christians shall:
- Feed the hungry
- Give drink to the thirsty
- Welcome the stranger
- Clothe the naked
- Visit the sick
- Visit the prisoner
- Bury the dead.
After the Reformation, many of these values disappeared and the poor were left without help. It became increasingly clear that something had to be done to help those who were genuinely in need, and something else had to be done about the increasing numbers of those who chose to beg and steal rather than work.
In 1552 Parish registers of poor were introduced. This meant that there was now an official register of poor in a parish.
In 1563 Justices of the Peace were given the power to raise funds to support the poor. Categories were also drawn up for the different types of poor and beggars that were found on the streets.
Deserving Poor This category was for those people who wanted to work but were unable to find suitable employment. These people were to be given help in the form of clothes, food or maybe money. (Outdoor Relief)
Those who were too old, young or ill to work. These people were to be looked after in almshouses, orphanages, workhouses or hospitals. Orphans and children of the poor were to be given an apprenticeship to a tradesman. (Indoor Relief)
Undeserving Poor Also called idle beggars or sturdy beggars, this category was for those who could work but chose not to. They were to be whipped through the town until they learnt the error of their ways.
In 1572 it was made compulsory that all people pay a local poor. The funds raised were to help the deserving poor.
In 1597 It was made law that every district have an Overseer of the Poor. The overseer had to do the following things:
- Work out how much money would be needed for the numbers of poor in that district and set the poor rate accordingly
- Collect the poor rate from property owners
- Relieve the poor by dispensing either food or money
- Supervise the parish poor house
In 1601 An act of Parliament called The Poor Law was passed by Parliament. The Act brought together all the measures listed above into one legal document.
Catherine of Aragon Timeline: Her Life and Times
(See Main Article: Catherine of Aragon Timeline: Her Life and Times)
Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII from their marriage on 11 June 1509 until their annulment on 23 May 1533. See below for a timeline of her life:
|16 Dec 1485
|Catherine of Aragon was born at Alcala de Henares in Spain.
|The treaty of Medina Del Campo that agreed the marriage of prince Arthur of England to Catherine of Aragon was signed.
|18 July 1497
|A new treaty agreed that Catherine of Aragon would come to England when Arthur was fourteen and that her dowry of 200,000 crowns would be paid in instalments.
|Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were formally betrothed at the Palace of Woodstock.
|Both Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon made formal appeals to the Pope to grant the necessary dispensation to allow them to marry before coming of age.
|The Treaty of London made further arrangements for Catherine of Aragon’s marriage to Prince Arthur.
|19 May 1499
|The marriage of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon took place, by proxy, at Prince Arthur’s manor house at Bewdley.
|A platform was built outside St Paul’s cathedral so that the couple could be witnessed taking their vows by the people of London.
|21 May 1501
|Catherine of Aragon left the Alhambra in Granada for the port of Corunna where she would board a boat to England.
|20 July 1501
|Catherine of Aragon and her entourage reached the port of Corunna.
|17 Aug 1501
|After having to wait nearly a month for favourable winds, Catherine of Aragon set sail for England.
|21 Aug 1501
|A fierce storm in the Bay of Biscay forced Catherine of Aragon to return to Spain. Catherine was very frightened and thought she was going to die. The ships were so battered that they needed re-fitting before the journey could resume.
|27 Sept 1501
|Catherine of Aragon once again set sail for England.
|2 Oct 1501
|Catherine of Aragon finally arrived at Plymouth. The noblemen of Devon and Cornwall quickly formed an escort to take her to Exeter where she was to stay.
|16 Oct 1501
|Messengers from the King arrived at Exeter. They brought a letter of welcome for Catherine of Aragon and a delegation of the English court to escort her to London.
|4 Nov 1501
|Henry had planned to officially receive Catherine when she reached Lambeth, but, like his son, he was impatient to set eyes on the young bride and rode to intercept the party travelling towards London.
|9 Nov 1501
|Catherine arrived at Lambeth Palace where she rested.
|12 Nov 1501
|Catherine made her formal entry into London. The streets were hung with tapestries and she was greeted along the way by pageants.
|14 Nov 1501
|Prince Arthur aged fifteen years and Catherine of Aragon, aged sixteen years, were married in St Paul’s Cathedral. Catherine was ‘given away’ by Prince Henry who escorted her up the aisle. The ceremony was conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Henry Deane, who was assisted by the Bishop of London, William Warham. The couple knelt to take their vows on a platform, draped with red cloth, six feet high which ran the length of the nave to the west door of the choir. The wedding banquet was followed by dancing and the couple were publicly put to bed as was the custom.
|mid-late Nov 1501
|The wedding celebrations lasted for two weeks and included daily jousts and banquets followed by pageants, disguising and dancing.
|late Nov 1501
|The wedding celebrations were over and the court had moved to Windsor. Arthur had to return to the Welsh Marches to take up his position as Prince of Wales. Although some people thought that Catherine was too young to be expected to live in the Welsh Marches, it was eventually decided that they should live together as man and wife.
|28 Nov 1501
|The Spanish sovereigns handed over the first part of Catherine’s dowry, 100,000 crowns.
|The Spanish nobles that had escorted Catherine to England returned to Spain with gifts from England.
|21 Dec 1501
|The Prince and Princess of Wales left Baynards Castle and travelled West to form their own court at Ludlow in the Welsh marches.
|The Prince and Princess of Wales arrived at Ludlow and set about making the castle, which had been uninhabited since 1483, warm and hospitable.
|late March 1502
|Prince Arthur and his wife Catherine were struck down with a viral infection.
|2 April 1502
|Prince Arthur died at his castle in Ludlow, Shropshire. Arthur’s body lay in state at Ludlow Castle.
|23 April 1502
|After a funeral service at the Parish church of Bewdley, Arthur was buried in the Abbey of St Wulfstan in Worcester. Catherine, as royal tradition dictated, did not attend her husband’s funeral. She was also still confined to her bed with the same virus that had killed Arthur.
|late April 1502
|As soon as she was well enough to travel Catherine, dressed in widow’s black travelled back to London.
|10 May 1502
|Ferdinand and Isabella were anxious not to lose the English alliance and instructed the Spanish ambassador to negotiate for a subsequent marriage to Prince Henry.
|A treaty was drafted which provided for the marriage of Catherine of Aragon to Prince Henry.
|Dr De Puebla was nominated to be the Spanish negotiator for the terms of Catherine’s subsequent marriage to Henry. He met daily with the English council.
|23 June 1503
|A new treaty for the marriage of Catherine of Aragon to Prince Henry was drawn up. The wedding was scheduled to take place in 1505, when Henry would be aged fourteen.
|25 June 1503
|Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon were formally betrothed by the Bishop of Salisbury. Catherine was now able to discard her mourning black and appeared dressed in white.
|late June 1503
|The terms of the marriage treaty meant that Catherine had no income of her own and was completely at the mercy of the English King.
|early Aug 1503
|A papal dispensation was requested from Pope Alexander VI by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and King Henry VII of England to allow Prince Henry to marry Catherine of Aragon.
|30 Sept 1503
|The new treaty for the marriage of Prince Henry to Catherine of Aragon was ratified by Isabella of Spain.
|Catherine was taken ill with a mystery illness which kept her confined to bed for much of the summer. She was subject to fits of fever and shivering and at times it was feared that she would die.
|The Pope wrote to Henry VII. He told him that he needed more time in which to examine the case of Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon.
|The Spanish ambassador, Estrada, formally complained about the delay in granting the dispensation.
|Julius II sent the dispensation that allowed Prince Henry to marry Catherine of Aragon, to England.
|Catherine’s dowry remained unpaid and Henry was not so keen on a Spanish alliance now that Spain was not united. Henry felt he could find a better match for his son and stopped Catherine’s allowance.
|Catherine now had no money of her own and was unable to pay her servants. the Spanish ambassador, Dr De Puebla, wrote to Ferdinand to seek his advice.
|Durham House, the Bishop of Ely’s town residence on The Strand, was placed at Catherine’s disposal.
|27 June 1505
|Prince Henry, on his father’s orders, made secret but formal protest against marriage to his brother’s widow. the King was anxious to delay the marriage as he still hoped to find a better match for his son. However, he did not want to formally break off the engagement as he wanted to keep the first instalment of Catherine’s dowry which had been paid after her marriage to Arthur.
|Catherine, as mistress of her own court at Durham House, was faced with severe financial problems. After protesting to Henry VII, she was instructed to give up Durham House and join the court.
|24 Nov 1505
|Ferdinand sent copies of the papal dispensation, sent to Spain, to England hoping to speed up the marriage of his daughter.
|Catherine’s financial position was very bad. With both her father and the King refusing to give her an allowance she was finding it difficult to pay her household.
|Catherine was provided with new clothes to wear during the festivities laid on for the visit by her sister Juanna and her husband Philip.
|late April 1506
|Henry VII stated publicly that because prince Henry had been underage at the time of his betrothal, the ceremony, which had been held in 1503, was therefore invalid. All further discussions regarding a marriage between prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon were to be postponed until the remainder of her dowry was paid.
|Catherine now had no money to pay her servants. She suffered recurrent bouts of fever and her illness was made worse by the high state of anxiety regarding her position in England.
|Catherine of Aragon’s health improved and she began to spend time in the company of Prince Henry. they began to enjoy each other’s company.
|late Autumn 1506
|Henry VII was alarmed when he discovered how close Prince Henry had become to Catherine. He sent Catherine and her household to live at Fulham Palace, saying that the country air would be more beneficial for her health.
|Henry VII gave Ferdinand a six-month deadline in which to hand over the second part of Catherine’s dowry.
|July or Sept 1507
|Ferdinand sent Catherine two thousand ducats but the money was not nearly enough. Over the years, Catherine had been forced to pawn many pieces of jewel and plate which was part of her dowry.
|Henry VII extended the deadline for the payment of Catherine’s dowry to March 1508. He did not want to lose the money.
|Henry was angry that Ferdinand had not paid his daughter’s dowry as arranged and broke off Catherine’s allowance. Fuensalida wrote to Ferdinand asking him to send a ship to the Thames so that he and Catherine could return to Spain.
|Catherine’s financial situation was now worse than ever, not only did she have no money with which to pay her servants, she now had nothing left to pawn.
|21 April 1509
|After a long illness, King Henry VII, aged fifty-two years, died from tuberculosis at Richmond palace, Surrey. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
|Early June 1509
|The members of the Privy Council urged Henry to marry Catherine of Aragon. Henry visited Catherine in her private apartments and, after dismissing her servants, asked her to be his wife. Catherine had, by now, learned enough English to get by and was able to accept his proposal.
|11 June 1509
|King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were privately married by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Warham, in the Church of the palace Friary at Greenwich. It was necessary for the marriage to be kept a very quiet affair because Henry was still in mourning for his father.
|15 June 1509
|Catherine made her first appearance at court as Queen of England.
|Catherine announced that she was pregnant.
|31 Jan 1510
|Catherine was prematurely delivered of a stillborn daughter. Both the King and Queen were disappointed, but not unduly so, for miscarriage or stillbirth of a first pregnancy was a common occurrence.
|Catherine of Aragon announced her second pregnancy.
|31 Dec 1510
|The Queen went into labour.
|1 Jan 1511
|Queen Catherine was delivered of a son who was named Henry after his father. Guns were fired from the Tower and the city bells were rung. Beacons were lit and free wine was distributed to all Londoners. The new prince was immediately created Prince of Wales.
|6 Jan 1511
|Prince Henry was christened at Richmond. His godparents were, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the earl of Surrey and the Countess of Devon.
|22 Feb 1511
|Prince Henry died at Richmond Palace. Both King and Queen were devastated. The young prince was given a lavish funeral and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
|30 June 1513
|Catherine was left as regent in England when Henry went to fight in France.
|9 Sept 1513
|The English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden Field. Catherine ordered that the bloodied coat of James IV be sent to Henry in France.
|Queen Catherine went into labour prematurely. She was delivered of a son at Richmond Palace, Surrey, who was styled Duke of Cornwall from birth. He died shortly after birth and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
|Catherine announced that she was pregnant again.
|8 Jan 1515
|Catherine of Aragon was delivered of a stillborn son.
|Queen Catherine announced her fifth pregnancy. However, less hope was placed on an heir resulting from the pregnancy.
|18 Feb 1516
|Queen Catherine was delivered of a healthy baby girl at 4am at Greenwich Palace, Kent. She was named Mary. Although celebrations to mark the birth were genuine, there was still disappointment that she had not been a boy. Henry tried to hide his disappointment by saying that if it were a girl this time then surely boys would follow.
|20/21 Feb 1516
|The princess Mary was christened in the chapel of Observant friars at Greenwich.
|At the age of thirty-two years, the Queen conceived for the sixth time.
|Queen Catherine visited Merton College, Oxford. The visit was combined with a pilgrimage to the shrine of St Frideswide.
|10 Nov 1518
|The Queen was delivered of a daughter, but she was weak and died within days.
|Catherine learned of the birth of Henry Fitzroy, Henry’s illegitimate son. She was upset and humiliated and began to withdraw from court life.
|11-22/24 June 1520
|Catherine accompanied Henry to France for a meeting with Francis I at the field of the cloth of gold.
|Henry stopped having sexual relations with Catherine who was plagued with gynaecological problems. He no longer found his wife desirable and was beginning to have serious doubts regarding the validity of his marriage. He believed that God was punishing him for marrying his brother’s wife by not giving him a son.
|Princess Mary was sent to Ludlow to establish her own court. Catherine was upset that she was to be parted from her daughter indefinitely.
|Catherine of Aragon gave her approval to Erasmus’ book ‘The Institution of a Christian Marriage’, she had been shown the book by Thomas More.
|Catherine was reunited with her daughter when Mary came to court for Christmas which was held at Greenwich.
|Henry was concerned about the validity of his marriage. He reasoned that his lack of male issue was God’s punishment for having married his brother’s wife. This reasoning together with his infatuation with Anne Boleyn, led him to the decision that he must divorce Catherine.
|22 June 1527
|Henry told Catherine that they must separate because they had been living in sin. He asked her to co-operate and to choose a house to retire to until the matter was resolved. Catherine was stunned and upset and made it quite plain that she would resist any divorce.
|Charles told the pope that he was going to protect his aunt, Catherine of Aragon. He demanded that Clement take no steps that would further an annulment.
|The population of England were still firmly on the Queen’s side with regard to the King’s divorce and cried “victory over your enemies” whenever she was seen.
|Catherine still resided at court but was now left in relative isolation with the majority of courtiers seeking out Anne Boleyn in preference to Catherine.
|early Oct 1528
|Catherine’s counsel for the divorce case included, William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, Dr Henry Standish, Bishop of St Asaph’s, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of London and John Clerk, Bishop of Bath and Wells.
|Catherine announced that she had in her possession a copy of the dispensation issued by Julius II in 1504 allowing her to marry Henry regardless of whether her marriage to Arthur was consummated or not.
|24 Oct 1528
|Campeggio met Catherine. He advised her to enter a convent and retire gracefully. She made it plain that she intended to live and die a married woman.
|late Oct 1528
|Catherine was as popular as ever with the people who cheered her in large numbers whenever she was out. Anne Boleyn on the other hand, was insulted with cries of “adulteress and sorceress”.
|late Oct 1528
|Catherine stated that she would not accept the findings of Wolsey and Campeggio’s court, she would only accept the decision of the Pope himself.
|late Oct 1528
|Catherine received a letter telling her that by riding out and attracting the cheers of the people, she was inciting rebellion. The council also told her that if she continued to work against the King in this way she would be completely separated from both the City and Princess Mary.
|Catherine was now separated from Mary and the isolation she was kept in meant that she was very lonely, but she still refused to enter a convent.
|Catherine lodged an appeal to Rome against the authority of the Legatine Court and the ability of Wolsey and Campeggio to try the case.
|Henry asked Catherine to choose those she wished to represent her during the forthcoming trial. Although she still refused to acknowledge the authority of the Legatine Court, she chose Archbishop Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Ely and St Asaph and her main supporter, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.
|31 May 1529
|Wolsey and Campeggio opened court at Blackfriars. Henry and Catherine were summoned to appear before the court on 18th June.
|6 June 1529
|Catherine made formal protest to Rome against the Legatine Court.
|18 June 1529
|Catherine was loudly applauded as she made her way to the Legatine Court. Once inside, she challenged that authority of the Court and the qualification of the two legates to hear the cast. She stated her wish for the case to be heard in Rome, but this was denied. Both Catherine and Henry were told to reappear on 21st June.
|mid July 1529
|Henry ordered the legates to visit Catherine and persuade her to submit to his wishes. Catherine was reluctant to receive them privately saying that they could speak freely in front of her women. She maintained her belief in the legitimacy of her marriage.
|23 July 1529
|The Legatine court reassembled at Blackfriars. The house was packed as it had been rumoured that a decision would be made. However, Campeggio announced that because of the large number of documents to be examined he would be unable to give judgement today. He went on to say that the court would now have to be adjourned until October because it was practice in Rome to break for the summer months.
|Henry received a summons from Rome to appear before the papal curia. He was furious. His anger with Rome was growing as was the awareness that the Pope may never grant him a divorce. He realised that he needed to find another solution.
|Thomas Cranmer was summoned to appear before the King. Cranmer told Henry that it was his opinion that the marriage should be tried by the Doctors of Divinity in the Universities for it was them that studied the Bible and were therefore better qualified to discuss its meaning. If the marriage were found to be invalid then all that would be necessary would be for the Archbishop of Canterbury to pronounce the King a free man.
|30 Nov 1529
|Henry was fed up with Anne’s complaints and chose, instead, to dine with Catherine. However, the evening did not go as he had expected. Catherine was angry that he treated her so badly in private while in public he was civil and courteous.
|early Dec 1529
|Catherine was ordered to leave Greenwich Palace and go to Richmond.
|24 Dec 1529
|Henry told Catherine that even if the Pope declared their marriage to be lawful he would still have his divorce. He told her that the Church of Canterbury was more important than that of Rome and that if the Pope found against him then he would declare the Pope a heretic and marry wherever he chose. Catherine had been brought back to court for Christmas because there was a general sense of unease since she had been sent from court.
|Late Dec 1529
|With the Christmas festivities over, Catherine was sent back to Richmond.
|At Catherine’s request, the Pope issued a brief that forbade Henry from re-marrying until a verdict had been passed on his marriage in Rome. However, the Pope refused to publish it.
|Catherine wrote to her representative in Rome, Dr Pedro Ortiz. She begged him to put pressure on the Pope to find her marriage lawful.
|A massive campaign was launched to declare that the relevant passage in Leviticus was subject to Canon law and libraries across Europe were searched for information that would help prove the King’s case. All those scholars deciding that Henry had a good case were sent a sum of money.
|Catherine was feeling more optimistic. She was heartened by her nephew’s stand for Catholicism in Germany and by the news that Anne Boleyn was losing popularity with the Court.
|Catherine, who was ill, was left alone at Richmond while Henry went to London with Anne Boleyn.
|Catherine, whose health had improved, was present at court for the Twelfth Night celebrations, that included a masque and dancing. Henry was courteous towards her and dined at the same table.
|In an attempt to make people believe that he was forced to set aside his wife against his will, Henry visited Catherine regularly.
|31 May 1531
|A deputation of Privy Councillors – Dr Stephen Gardiner, Rowland Lee, Dr Sampson and Longland, Bishop of Lincoln – were sent to try to persuade Catherine to agree to an annulment of her marriage. She refused and went on to deny Henry’s Supremacy of the Church and stated that she would only abide by a decision made by the Pope.
|In an attempt to appease Catherine of Aragon, Henry arranged for her to be with Mary when the court moved to Windsor.
|11/14 July 1531
|Henry moved the court to Woodstock for a spell of hunting. He did not tell Catherine about the move, choosing, instead, to leave her and Mary alone in the deserted apartments at Windsor. On finding her husband gone, Catherine wrote to Henry expressing her regret that she hadn’t been up to say goodbye to him when he left to go hunting.
|Catherine was not invited to court for Christmas and Henry returned her gift saying that they were no longer man and wife it was not proper for them to exchange gifts.
|Princess Mary made a much publicised visit to her mother at Enfield. Henry had reluctantly agreed to the visit in a bid to placate his subjects. However, he was very worried that mother and daughter might intrigue against him with the Emperor and he vowed to keep them apart in future.
|Catherine was instructed to leave The More and move to the palace at Bishop’s Hatfield in Hertfordshire.
|Catherine’s closest friend, Maria de Salinas, Lady Willoughby, was ordered to leave Catherine’s household. she was told not to make any attempt to communicate with Catherine.
|Thomas Abell, who had spoken in public for Catherine, was sent to the Tower.
|early Sept 1532
|Thomas Cranmer who supported royal supremacy over the church, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. However, he was in Germany serving as English ambassador to the German court.
|13 Sept 1532
|Catherine of Aragon was told to move to Enfield where she would be less comfortable.
|John Forrest, a member of the Observant Friars at Greenwich, former confessor of Catherine, was imprisoned for supporting Catherine rather than the King.
|early Jan 1533
|Anne Boleyn told Henry that she was pregnant. Henry now knew he had to marry Anne as soon as possible to ensure the child’s legitimacy. He decided that the marriage should take place as soon as possible, but should be kept secret until an ace could be passed abolishing all appeals to Rome.
|Henry ordered Catherine to move to Ampthill which was some distance from London. She wrote letters to both the Pope and Charles saying that she wanted no bloodshed and would not sanction any invasion of England on her behalf.
|1 April 1533
|Convocation declared by 14 votes to 7 that if Catherine’s first marriage had been consummated, then her marriage to Henry was against God’s law and as such invalid.
|5 April 1533
|Convocation ruled that the Pope did not have the authority to issue a bull setting aside the ruling in Leviticus that no man shall marry his brother’s wife. The ruling was opposed by Fisher.
|7 April 1533
|Act in Restraint of Appeals The passing of this act forbade all appeals to foreign tribunals in all spiritual, revenue and testamentary cases. Spiritual and secular jurisdiction was to be the ultimate responsibility of the King and the Pope’s right of intervention was abolished. This bill had taken several weeks to pass through parliament, with some, such as Sir George Throckmorton, speaking against it. It had to be amended before it would be accepted. It was obvious to all that this act had been passed to prevent Catherine making any further appeal to Rome.
|9 April 1533
|Norfolk and Suffolk were sent to Ampthill to tell Catherine that Henry and Anne were married. She was told that as she was now no longer queen she must use the title Princess dowager of Wales. She was allowed to keep her property but her servants and household expenses would now be her responsibility. She was also told that if she submitted to the King’s will she would be generously provided for.
|8 May 1533
|Thomas Cranmer opened court and duly summoned Catherine to appear. However, he was very worried of the consequences should she decide to appear in person.
|13 May 1533
|Thomas Cranmer pronounced judgement on Henry’s marriage. He declared the marriage null and void on the grounds that it was contrary to divine law. Bishop Fisher was the only bishop to protest against the decision and secretly appealed to Charles to intervene, using force if necessary. However, although angry, Charles had no intention of starting a war.
|3 July 1533
|Catherine was visited by a deputation of Councillors led by Lord Mountjoy. She was told that if she would submit to the King’s wishes he would provide her with a handsome estate but that if she persisted in her obstinacy things would go badly for her daughter and servants.
|Late July 1533
|Henry was furious with Catherine’s continual obstinacy and ordered her to move to the Bishop of Lincoln’s Palace at Buckden in Huntingdonshire.
|early Dec 1533
|Catherine swallowed her pride and wrote to Henry asking if she might be allowed to move to a healthier house. Henry replied that she could move to Fotheringay Castle if she chose. Knowing it to be worse than Buckden, Catherine declined.
|The Act in Absolute Restraint of Appeals This act put into effect the terms of the Act of 1532 and transferred all payments from the pope to the King. Henry was declared to be, next to Christ, the only Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England. It also laid down that all future abbots and bishops were to be chosen for election by the King.
|23 March 1534
|Act of Succession. This Act was introduced to exclude Mary from the succession and settle it instead on the children born from his marriage to Anne. It registered the invalidity of Henry’s first marriage and proclaimed his second to be legal. Severe penalties were to be imposed on all those who opposed Henry’s second marriage and this Act, either openly or secretly. The Act also gave Henry the power to extract oaths from any of his subjects regarding the provisions of the Act. Anyone refusing to swear the oath would be guilty of treason.
|early April 1534
|Catherine refused to swear the oath of succession. She now feared for both her own and her daughter’s life. She only ate food prepared by trusted servants and kept a constant watch on all strangers.
|mid May 1534
|Catherine moved to Kimbolton Castle. Henry’s loyal subjects, Sir Edmund Bedingfield and Sir Edward Chamberlain, were appointed Steward and Chamberlain respectively. They were told that Catherine was to receive no visitors unless they held a special licence from the King. Catherine spent most of her time in the seclusion of her own rooms with a few trusted servants. Her apartments were more comfortable than those of Buckden and from her window she could look across the rooftops to the country beyond. She also had her own chapel behind which was a small walled garden where she could walk on fine days.
|The Bishop of Durham was sent to make Catherine swear to the Oath of Succession. However, she steadfastly refused to take the oath.
|Catherine’s health began to deteriorate. Chapuys begged Henry to allow him to visit her but permission was refused. Chapuys left London with a large escort to visit Catherine at Kimbolton Castle. He made a great show of the journey, however, five miles from the castle he was met by one of Catherine’s messengers who said that she had been forbidden to meet him. He turned back satisfied that the people knew Spain supported Catherine.
|mid Sept 1534
|Catherine’s health continued to deteriorate. Her friend Maria de Salinas, Lady Willoughby, begged permission to visit her but permission was denied.
|With Charles’ backing, Chapuys tried to find a way for Catherine and Mary to escape England. He planned to smuggle them out at night and go down river to Gravesend where a Spanish boat would take them to the Netherlands.
|10 May 1535
|Charles wrote to Chapuys saying that it was too risky to try to effect Catherine and Mary’s escape. Chapuys was forced to abandon all plans for escape as it was feared that Mary and Catherine would be executed if they were discovered.
|1 Dec 1535
|Catherine was taken seriously ill. She was complaining of chest pains, was unable to eat and was confined to bed.
|14 Dec 1535
|Catherine had recovered slightly and was able to sit in a chair. She wrote to Charles asking for money to pay her servants as her funds were depleted.
|17 Dec 1535
|Catherine celebrated her fiftieth birthday.
|26 Dec 1535
|Catherine was again taken ill and was forced to take to her bed again.
|30 Dec 1535
|Henry gave Chapuys permission to visit Catherine who was now considered to be dying. Mary was still refused permission to see her mother although Henry did agree to reconsider this.
|2 Jan 1536
|Chapuys, the Spanish ambassador, arrived at Kimbolton Castle to see Catherine. He knelt at her bedside and kissed her hand. Catherine told him that she could die happy now she knew she was not abandoned. She asked him questions about Henry and Mary.
|4 Jan 1536
|Chapuys told Catherine’s physician that if her condition deteriorated she was to swear on her deathbed that her marriage to Arthur had not been consummated. Much store was set by deathbed confessions.
|5 Jan 1536
|Maria de Salinas, Lady Willoughby, forced her way into Kimbolton Castle to see Catherine, having been refused permission to visit.
|6 Jan 1536
|Catherine seemed a little better today and even tidied her hair before spending a long while talking to Maria de Salinas. Catherine also made her will, despite it being against the law for a woman to make a will while her husband lived. She asked for her debts to be paid and her servants rewarded for the good service they had given. She bequeathed a collar of gold that she had brought from Spain to Mary as well as her furs. Chapuys left Kimbolton as Catherine seemed so much stronger.
|7 Jan 1536
|Catherine awoke with stomach pains and nausea. She quickly became very weak and her confessor was summoned. She dictated two letters, one to Henry and one to Charles. She received Holy Communion and extreme unction then prayed aloud for two hours. Catherine of Aragon died at 2 p.m. at Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire, probably of cancer.
|8 Jan 1536
|An autopsy was carried out on Catherine’s body. A black growth was found on her heart but no other abnormalities. They pronounced the growth to be caused by poisoning. It was widely believed that Anne Boleyn had slowly poisoned Catherine to death and the death of Mary was expected to follow. The news that Catherine had been poisoned spread throughout Europe.
The Tudors – Monarchs
The Tudors monarchs reigned from 1485 until 1603. There were five crowned Tudors monarchs; Lady Jane Grey reigned as Queen for only nine days. The Tudors kings and queens were very powerful and they are noted for the numbers of people executed during the period.
“The Last King of America: George III, His Battles With Madness, and Being a Thoroughly Underrated Monarch”
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|Henry VII came to the throne after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. He was a serious man and faced many challenges to his place on the throne, the most notable being from Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. He married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV uniting the houses of Lancaster and York and ending the Wars of the Roses. Henry successfully established the Tudors dynasty and when he died in 1509, his son’s succession was not challenged and England was a rich and prosperous country.
|Henry VIII is the best known of the Tudors Monarchs, he was the second son of Henry VII and became King because his brother, Arthur had died. He married his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon when he became King, but divorced her when she did not produce a male heir to the throne. In order to gain his divorce, Henry had to establish the Church of England and end Catholicism. Henry went on to marry another five wives – Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Katherine Howard and Katherine Parr. Anne Boleyn and Katherine Howard were executed for treason. He died in 1547.
|Edward VI came to the throne at the age of 9 years. He was a sickly child and the country was run by his protectors: firstly, the Duke of Somerset, his mother’s brother, then by the Duke of Northumberland. Edward died at the age of 15 in 1553.
|Lady Jane Grey was chosen to be Queen by the Duke of Northumberland in an attempt to keep England a Protestant country. Next in the line of succession was Henry VIII’s eldest daughter, Mary. Mary was a Catholic and had sworn to return England to Catholicism. The public did not approve of Jane’s succession and supported Mary’s claim to the throne. Queen Jane reigned for just 9 days before Mary successfully took the throne. Jane and her husband, Guildford Dudley, son of the Duke of Northumberland, were beheaded.
|Mary I was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon and was a committed Catholic. When she came to the throne she vowed to return England to Rome and Catholicism. She is known as Bloody Mary because of the numbers of people who were executed for being Protestants. She made herself even more unpopular by marrying Philip of Spain and losing Calais, England’s last possession in France. Mary died in 1558, probably of cancer of the womb.
|Elizabeth I became Queen after her sister Mary I died without an heir. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She upheld Protestantism in England and her will was the law. She did not marry and was known as the Virgin Queen. During Elizabeth’s reign the age of exploration began with explorers such as Francis Drake claiming new lands for England and introducing new materials and foods. The American State, Virginia, is named after her. When Elizabeth died in 1603 the Tudor line ended.
The War of the Roses History
“A Short History of the War of the Roses”
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The War of the Roses history is a story of Tudors monarchs desperately attempting to unite a faction behind them large enough to unite the fledging realm of England. Henry VII (1457 – 1509) was the first Tudors monarch. His claim to the throne was not strong and he became king after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485.
Henry’s success on the battlefield ended the Wars of the Roses that had begun in 1455. The Wars of the Roses were a series of battles that were fought between the supporters of the House of Lancaster (Lancastrians) and the supporters of the House of York (Yorkists).
During the Tudor dynasty, the wars were called the Wars of the Roses because the Yorkists were represented by a white rose and the Lancastrians by a red rose.
Background to the Wars of the Roses
(See Main Article: The War of the Roses History)
Although there were no battles fought until 1455, the cause of the wars dates back to the reign of Edward III and the power struggle between his sons after his death.
The four eldest sons of Edward III (1312 – 1377) were Edward the Black Prince (heir to the throne), Lionel of Antwerp (Duke of Clarence) John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) and Edmund of Langley (Duke of York)
Edward III died in 1377. His eldest son, Edward, the Black Prince had died of the plague in 1376 and so his grandson, Richard, aged ten and son of the Black Prince, became king. Because Richard II was only ten years old, his uncle, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, ruled the country. As Richard grew older he rebelled against his uncle and made decisions that were not popular with the most powerful men in the country.
In 1399 John of Gaunt died and Richard II confiscated the land he had owned. John of Gaunt’s son, Henry, raised an army and when Richard surrendered took the throne as Henry IV. Richard was imprisoned in Pontefract castle and mysteriously died in February 1400.
Henry IV faced a number of challenges to his place on the throne because he was not the natural successor to Richard II. With the death of Richard II, the crown should have passed to Edmund Earl of March, great grandson of Lionel Duke of Clarence. However, Henry managed to keep his place on the throne and when he died in 1413, the country was at peace and his son, Henry V, succeeded without problem.
Henry V was a strong leader and after ordering the execution of Richard, Earl of Cambridge for plotting to put the Yorkists on the throne, invaded France. He won many battles, including the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 and conquered Normandy and Rouen for England. In 1420, Henry married the daughter of the king of France and it was agreed that their children would be the heirs of both England and France. When Henry V died in 1422 from dysentery, his son, Henry VI became the only king to be crowned king of England and France.
Henry VI was four months old when he became king and his father’s brothers ruled England and France in his place. France was soon lost when Joan of Arc raised an army against the English and restored the French monarchy. As Henry grew older it became apparent that he was a weak king, totally dominated by his French wife Margaret of Anjou. He was also prone to bouts of insanity and the Yorkists began plotting to take his place on the throne.
The first battle of the Wars of the Roses took place at St Albans on 22nd May 1455. The Yorkists led by Richard Duke of York easily defeated the King’s army. Henry VI was injured and taken prisoner. In 1455, Henry suffered another bout of insanity and Richard Duke of York was made protector of England. In 1456, Henry recovered and retook the throne. There were further battles and in 1459 Richard was killed at the Battle of Wakefield.
In 1461, Richard’s son Edward, Earl of March, defeated the King’s army, took the King prisoner and made himself King Edward IV. Queen Margaret took her son and fled to Wales where they were taken in by the king’s half-brother Jaspar Tudor. In 1470, Henry regained the throne but in 1471 was defeated by Edward’s army at the Battle of Tewkesbury and taken prisoner. Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales was killed during the battle. With no other Lancastrian heir to challenge him, Edward IV remained king until his sudden death in 1483.
Edward IV had two sons, Edward and Richard, both of whom were too young to rule and so their uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester ruled England. The two princes were taken to the Tower of London and in the summer of 1483 mysteriously disappeared. It is believed that their uncle murdered them. Richard was crowned Richard III. He was not a popular king and faced many challenges to his place on the throne, notably from Henry Tudor, grandson of Owen Tudor who had been second husband to Henry V’s wife Katherine of Valois.
Henry Tudor raised a Lancastrian army against Richard Iii and at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, Richard was killed and the Yorkists defeated. It is told that Henry found Richard’s crown on the battlefield and placed it on his head. Henry VII was crowned king and married Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York a move that was to end the Wars of the Roses. Thus, the story of the Tudor dynasty was told. A new chapter would be set to open on the Stuart dynasty.
The Stuarts were the United Kingdom’s first kings. For the first time, two thrones were combined when King James VI of Scotland became also King James I of England.
Scroll down to see more articles about the history of Stuarts. The Stuarts were the United Kingdom’s first kings. For the first time, two thrones were combined when King James VI of Scotland became also King James I of England.
To learn more, click here for our comprehensive guide to The Stuarts.
The Red Rose of Lancaster + The White Rose of York = The Red and White Tudor Rose
The Tudors – Bibliography
Anne Boleyn – Tudor History
Anne of Cleves – Tudor History
Catherine of Aragon – Tudor History
Edward VI – Britannia
Edward VI – Tudor History
Lady Jane Grey – Jane Lambert
Elizabeth I – Anniina Jokinen
Elizabeth I – Tudor History
Elizabethan Costume – Drea Leed
Henry VII – Britannia
Henry VII – The History Net
Henry VII – Tudor History
Henry VIII – Britannia
Henry VIII – Tudor History
Jane Grey – Tudor History
Jane Seymour – Tudor History
Katherine Parr – Tudor History
Kathryn Howard – Tudor History
Life in Tudor Times – Nettlesworth Primary School
Mary I – Tudor History
Mary I – Elizabeth Lee
Reformation Europe – Internet Modern History Sourcebook
Suppression of the English Monasteries under Henry VIII – Catholic Encyclopedia
The Life and Times of Queen Elizabeth I – Heather Thomas
Tudor Food – Tudor History
Tudor Fun and Games – Nettlesworth Primary School
Who’s Who in Tudor History – Tudor History
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